Part I


I Listen and remember the following words:



зберегтися, вижити


– середньовічний






ІІ Read and remember the following phrases:

– відмінні риси

– біблійські істини

– широкий простір

– заставочний рукопис

– кольорове скло

– світські еліти

точки зору


III Read and translate the following text:


History of arts

The history of arts is an attempt to survey art through human history, classifying cultures and periods by their distinguishing features.

The history of art is often told as an chronology of masterpieces created in each civilization in the world.

of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in their art.

Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans. In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical truths. Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are one of the great achievements of medieval art.

The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art history. Medieval art was produced in many media, and the works that remain in large numbers include sculpture, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass, metalwork and mosaics.

and the iconographic traditions of the early Christian church.

At the start of the medieval period most significant works of art were very rare and costly objects associated with secular elites, monasteries or major churches.


The period of the Middle Ages neither begins nor ends neatly at any particular date, nor at the same time in all regions, and the same is true for the major phases of art within the period.

. Byzantine art was extremely conservative, for religious and cultural reasons, but retained a continuous tradition of Greek realism.

. Some other decorative arts were less developed.

centuries included Neoclassicism, Romantic art, Academic art, and Realism in art. Art historians disagree when Modern art began. It was either in the mid-eighteenth century with the artist Francisco Goya, the mid-nineteenth century with the industrial revolution or the late nineteenth century with the advent of Impressionism. The art movements of the late nineteenth through the early twenty first centuries are too numerous to detail. They can be broadly divided into two categories: Modernism and Contemporary art or Postmodern art.


ІV Answer the questions:

1. What is the history of art?

2. What are the oldest surviving forms of art?

3. When and where did the biblical truths dominate in art?

what media was medieval art produced in?

5. Was the use of valuable materials constant in medieval art?

6. What are characteristic features of Byzantine art?

famous for?

8. What was medieval era followed by?



V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. The history of art is often told as … … created in each civilization in the world.

2. The oldest surviving art forms include … … … .

3. Ancient Roman art depicted … … … .

4. The use of valuable materials is … … … .

Byzantine art is the art of the … … … .


VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

малюнки на скалах; заставний рукопис; середньовічне мистецтво; оздоблення одягу; зберігати традиції; майстерність; поява (виникнення); кольорове скло; металообробка.


VII Make up the sentences with the words and phrases:

monumental Church mosaics; a unique and characteristic style; rare and costly objects; a particular date; conservative; silk; textiles; decorative art; impressionism; Modern and Contemporary art.


VIII Give definitions to the words:

sculpture; painting; mosaics; jewellery; advent.


IX Translate sentences into English.

Кожна з древніх цивілізацій розвинула свій унікальний та характерний стиль мистецтва.

Візантійська монументальна мозаїка є однією з величезних досягнень середньовічного мистецтва.

Середньовічне мистецтво Західного світу охоплює широкий простір часу, понад 1000 років історії мистецтва.

У Європі середньовічне мистецтво виросло із спадщини Римської імперії.

Період Середньовіччя не має точної дати свого початку.

Візантійське мистецтво було дуже консервативним з релігійних та культурних причин.

Ера Середньовіччя закінчилась із виникненням Ренесансу, а потім Барокко та Рококо.

Академічне мистецтво виникло у 18-19 століттях.

Мистецтвознавці не однакової думки щодо періоду виникнення Модерну.

Художні течії (напрямки) кінця 19, 20 та початку 21 століття дуже численні.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

istory of art; to survey; cultures; masterpieces; civilization; Egypt; Greece; Rome; India; China; characteristic style of art; biblical truths; mosaics; Medieval art; sculpture; manuscripts; stained glass; valuable materials; Byzantine art; be characterized; silk; textiles; art historians; Impressionism; Modernism; Postmodern art.



I Read and remember:





вигідне становище




варіювати, урізноманітнювати




ІІ Read the text and define the main idea:



viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and contributions of such Great Men as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.

The Renaissance, being a cultural movement, profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period, literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion.

, and why it began when it did. Accordingly, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins.


Other historians have contended that these “Great Men” were only able to rise to prominence because of the prevailing cultural conditions at the time.

One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. It was part of wider trend towards realism in the arts. To that end, painters also developed other techniques, studying light, shadow, and famously in the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy.

Botticelli, Donatello and Titian, among others.

. The invention of the printing press allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas. As it spread, its ideas diversified and changed, being adapted to local cultures.

izabethan era marked the beginning of the English Renaissance with the work of writers William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Sir Thomas More, Francis Bacon, as well as great artists.

, Pierre de Ronsard, Michel de Montaigne, painters such as Jean Clouet and musicians such as Jean Mouton also borrowed from the spirit of the Italian Renaissance.

on a hard surface that could survive for centuries.

century influence of the Renaissance affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, religion and other aspects of intellectual require.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

What is the Renaissance?

What did the Renaissance affect?

What did some historians postulate?

What were the other opinions as to the origin of the Renaissance?


of the artistic pinnacles?


What do you know about the English Renaissance?


VI Render the text in brief in a written form


Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:








в першу чергу



II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:


He is perhaps the most diversely talented person have ever to lived.


a plane.



III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

Leonardo da Vinci?

often described?









Part II


I Listen and remember the following words.



дивитися, поглядати



замінювати, заміщати

змінюватися, зливатися

вироби із срібла

витонченість, удосконалення



II Read and remember the following phrases.

вирішальний фактор

додаткові скульптурні елементи

приховане освітлення

надмірний орнамент

складність ліній



III Read and translate the following text:


Baroque and Rococo

Baroque is an artistic style of unity imposed upon rich heavy detail.


In Baroque sculpture, was a dynamic movement and energy of human forms. These sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angels. The characteristic Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example concealed lighting, or water fountains.

. Town planning of this period featured radiating avenues intersecting in squares, which took ones from Baroque garden plans.

In modern usage, the term “Baroque” may still be used, usually describing works of art, craft, or design that are thought to have excessive ornamentation or complexity of line.

in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts.

. The style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture.

, where it was merged with the lively German Baroque traditions. In Great Britain Rococo was always thought of as the “French taste”. It was never widely adopted as an architectural style, although its influence was strongly felt in such areas as silverwork, porcelain, and silk. Thomas Chippendale transformed British furniture design through his adaptation and refinement of the style.

It is not surprising, that French Rococo art was at home indoors. Metalwork, porcelain figures, frills and especially furniture rose to new pre-eminence as the French upper class thought to outfit their homes in the new fashionable style.

Rococo style took pleasure is asymmetry, a taste that was new to European style.

, physically and visually. The idea of furniture had evolved to a symbol of status and took on a role in comfort and versatility. Furniture could be easily moved around for gatherings.


Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative arts, the style showed clearly in painting. The painters used delicate colours and curving forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and myths of love. Portraiture was also popular among Rococo painters.

himself was a director of a famous porcelain factory.


ІV Answer the questions:

of style is Baroque?

Whose works signify the Baroque style in painting?

Where was Baroque architecture taken up with enthusiasm?

Where can examples of Baroque architecture be found?

What does the term “Baroque” mean in modern usage?

What style was Baroque superseded by?

Who promoted the Rococo style spreading?

Where was this style popular?

How was Rococo embodied in furniture?

Why is Rococo considered to be an entirely interior style?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

Baroque sculpture was … .

modern usage, the term “Baroque” … .

3. The Rococo style spread … .

4. It was never widely adopted as … .

5. It is not surprising … .

6. Though Rococo originated in … .


VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

художній стиль, картини, скульптури, фонтани, планування міст, витвори мистецтва, ремесло, надмірний орнамент, інтер’єр, вплив, пристосування, удосконалення.


VII Make up the sentences with the words and phrases:

a defining statement, to be provided by, dynamic movement, concealed lighting, culmination of Baroque architecture, to be embodied, town planning, in modern usage, to be superseded, spread, German Baroque traditions.


VIII Give definitions to the words:

works of art, craft, silverwork, indoors, furniture.


IX Translate sentences into English.

Як художній стиль Бароко характеризується розкішними, важкими деталями.

У Німеччині стиль Бароко був сприйнятий з ентузіазмом.

Англійський архітектор Сер Крістофер Урен був прихильником цього стилю.

Стиль Рококо виник у Франції наприкінці 1720-х років.

Стиль Рококо широко застосовувався в інтер’єрі, живописі та скульптурі.

Древні фоліанти та французькі художники сприяли розповсюдженню стилю Рококо.

Французька знать оздоблювала своє житло у новому модному стилі.

Меблі у стилі Рококо були комфортні, різноманітні та легко переміщалися при потребі зібрання.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

Baroque and Rococo styles; to be characterised by; rich heavy details; to be used in; painting, sculpture, architecture; in modern usage; works of art; craft; excessive ornamentation; complexity of lines; spread; France; Germany; Austria; French Rococo; interior; furniture; etc.



I Read and remember:

візуальне мистецтво


бути позбавленим

естетичний досвід



приймати, набувати





ІІ Read the text and define the main idea:


The history of arts. Brief overview


of pastel colours and haziness; instead, they have sharp colours.

and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature in art and literature. It stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as trepidation, horror.

As the Romantic movement waned, the focus shifted away from idealism to a more realistic rendering of nature, social relationships, and the characteristics of the individual, society, and the nation at large. This new realism assumed various forms in the different countries where it took root.

(1852-70) and began to wane in the 1870s.

, and the Impressionists represent a deepening rejection of the prevailing academic tradition and a quest for a more naturalistic representation of the visual world. From about the 1890s on, different movements and styles arose, such as Neo-Impressionism, Symbolism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Constructivism, Surrealism, Social Realism, Pop art, Minimal art, and Neo-Expressionism, etc. Despite the enormous variety seen in these movements, most of them are characteristically modern in expressing a spiritual response to the changed conditions of life in the 20th century.

crucial role as the only means of accurately depicting the visible world.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

When and where did Neoclassicism begin?

What are Neoclassical paintings devoid of … ?

What is Romanticism?

What is Realism featured by?

Where did modern painting start in?

and the Impressionists represent?

What styles arose then?

What do they express?

What is the abstract art?

What influenced the development of modern art?


VI Render the text in brief in a written form.


Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:


ґрунтовно, досконало

зіпсований, розпещений

риси (обличчя)




як живий






II Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions

When did Pablo Picasso learn to draw?

How many drawings, paintings and sculptures did he create?


III Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

Picasso showed his truly exceptional talent in a very young age.

His father was an amateur artist.

Pablo often watched his father paint but he was never allowed to help.

Few people realized that he was a genius.

He was always breaking the rules of artistic tradition and shocked the public.

He created over 6000 paintings, drawings and sculptures.



fashion history

part I


Listen and remember the following words:






що постійно змінюється


надавати особливого значення

законодавець моди




– професійний кравець

– необхідність

– вдаватися до крайнощів

– досить кардинально

– вишуканий дизайн


III Read and translate the following text:


First steps in fashion

The history of fashion reveals not only the importance of changes in appearance but also its historical interpretation.

. These influences brought a revolution in fashion.

developed new methods of cutting and sewing.

The Middle Ages was perhaps the last period in European history when clothing was a simple matter of necessity rather than extravagant, ever-changing fashion.



tume began to emphasize fashion.

caused the emergence of trendsetters.

who ruled from 1558 to 1603. This powerful female ruler drove fashion to extremes in her pursuit of richness and ornament.

he clothing worn by Europeans during the seventeenth century was influenced by fashion trends as never before. During the course of the century garments went from restrictive to comfortable and back to restrictive again, and excessive ornament was both stripped away and added back to clothing for both men and women. While the wealthy continued to determine the styles the rise of the middle classes also began to have a significant influence on fashion.

was toward softness and

comfort. People continued to value rich materials and exquisite design, and didn’t add ornament for ornament’s sake.

with its free sense of style.



IV Answer the questions:

Why do we need to study fashion history?

2. What is medieval fashion characterized by?

3. What transformations did the fifteenth century see?

4. Who is the most famous trendsetter of the sixteenth century?

5. What are the main features of that period?

6. How did the fashion change in the seventeenth century?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. … was the period when clothes were a matter of necessity.

2. Some cultural trends of the sixteenth century included … .

I was one of the greatest trendsetters of the sixteenth century, she … fashion … .

… the middle class began to have a great impact on fashion.

the seventeenth century garments’ overall trend was toward … .


VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

зовнішність, визначати, тканина, поширення, напрямок (у моді), впливати, предмети одягу, зручний, надмірний.


VII Make up sentences with the terms:

professional tailor, trendsetter, exquisite design, medieval fashion, revolution in fashion, innovation.


VIII Give definitions to the words:

trendsetter, ever-changing, to emphasize, exquisite, availability, tailor, cutting.


IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Модна революція стала однією з головних підстав появи професійного кравця.

2. Поступово люди почали надавати особливого значення моді.

3. Нові тенденції в моді дуже впливали на одяг європейців у 17 столітті.

4. Європейські кравці постійно винаходили нові методи пошиття одягу.

5. Шістнадцяте століття відзначилося поширенням книжок, торгівлі, а також збільшенням могутності монархії.

6. У сімнадцятому столітті стиль одягу став зручнішим.

7. Візантійська імперія мала великий вплив на моду Європи.

8. Шістнадцяте століття було одним з найблискучіших періодів в історії моди.

X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

, fashion revolution, tailor, to develop, transformations, Western fashion, trendsetter, comfortable,

to determine.



I Read and remember:

відвертати (увагу, тощо)




лацкан (піджака, тощо)

(довжиною) до литки



нижня спідниця

що нагадує



War I and after the War

longer the war went on, the more clothing rules were relaxed. Only a few women wore black for a whole year or limited their jewelry to black jet.


The military style was soon reflected in fashion. Before the war coats had normally been shorter than skirts. Now they resembled uniforms and covered everything. Shawl collars with fur trimming were replaced by strict lapels. Clothes simply became more functional. The narrow straight skirt was replaced by a calf-length pleated skirt. Hats became smaller and were worn with no decoration. Jewelry was more or less taboo.

because working women found that uniforms and working clothes were practical and had a certain appeal: they made women look competent and serious.

certain nostalgia for wide skirts, which reminded wearers of the “good old days”.

In 1915 there was a short period of frivolity, when the so-called war crinoline was introduced. This was a mid-calf skirt made of abundant material and worn over several petticoats, reminiscent of the 19th-century crinoline.

were closed during the war. Chanel, on the other hand, introduced her jersey suits which suited the times perfectly.

Many women did not want to give up the freedoms which the war had forced on them. Morals had changed, and so had clothes: both had become looser. The shorter dress that now revealed the ankles was more popular than pants which reminded wearers of hard work. Women wanted to enjoy themselves. They wanted to dance and they could move best in the simplest dress, cut straight from top to bottom like a tube. This design also had the advantage of being something that every woman could copy and run up on her sewing machine at home.

The fashion industry needed new ideas and new customers.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. How did the war influence fashion?

2. What was the dress code at the theatre?

3. What were women doing during that time?

4. Military style was reflected in fashion, wasn’t it?

5. How did “dress for all occasions” look like?

6. What was the so-called war crinoline like?

7. Many new fashion houses appeared during the war, didn’t they?

8. What was more popular: dress or pants?

9. What was necessary for fashion industry?


VI Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words:







II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

was very important and allowed for creation of rich fabrics.

2. Powerful European kingdoms had a great impact on fashion.

3. Tailors of that time were not so skilled as they are now.

4. The monarchs were the only persons who could afford rich fabrics.

5. One of the ways displaying the power of kings and queens was clothing.


and be ready to answer the questions:


2. How did monarchs treat fashion?



fasion history

part II


Listen and remember the following words:







викрійка, лекало

брати до уваги

серійного (масового) виробництва

готовий (одяг)


the following phrases:

– до такої міри, що

ткацький верстат

– на вікú


на початку


III Read and translate the following text:


Fashion evolution

people’s attitude about dress changed. No longer the monarchs were the only trendsetters of fashion. Later toward the end of the century clothing styles began to simplify.

ress changed a lot. The change was influenced the introduction of machines to the construction of clothing. Sewing machines, power looms or weaving machines and other inventions increased the productivity of clothing manufacture. While the styles for men at the end of the century laid the foundation that would influence men’s clothing for the centuries to come, the styles for women did not.


Women’s fashion began to be influenced by fashion designers, the first being Charles Frederick Worth. And in the coming century women would experience much more liberty and a variety of new styles would emerge to reflect this.

was the center of the world of fashion but more and more people got their fashion ideas from magazines. Social changes especially the increasing liberation of women and the coming of war also had a great impact on fashion.


The introduction of the sewing machine combined with the factory system allowed for the mass production of clothing. Men’s clothing was the first to be mass-produced in a variety of different sizes. This form of clothing was called ready-to-wear. By the first years of the twentieth century ready-to-wear clothing was available to women too.


IV Answer the questions:

What changes did dress undergo in the eighteenth century?

2. What did these changes reflect?

3. What inventions in fashion were presented in the nineteenth century?

4. Who was the first fashion designer?

5. How can you characterize the twentieth century in point of fashion?

play at the dawn of the twentieth century?

7. How did publishers influence the spreading of new fashion trends?

8. When did ready-to-wear clothing become available?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. At the beginning of the eighteenth century monarchs were not the only … .

2. Despite the growing skills of dressmakers clothing began … .

3. Such inventions as … , … allowed for the mass production of clothing in the nineteenth century.

the twentieth century publishers began to sell … allowing people to make the clothes at home.

… century ready-to-wear clothing become available to women.


VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

зміна, уміння, вплив, давати можливість, доступний, виробництво, відображати, з’являтися, винахід, різноманітність.


VII Make up sentences with the terms:

ready-to-wear clothing, pattern, dressmaker, weaving machine, clothing manufacture, pattern book, fashion show.


VIII Give definitions to the words:

pattern, ready-to-wear, silhouette, dressmaker, to simplify, sewer, invention.


IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Незважаючи на майстерність кравців, наприкінці вісімнадцятого століття дизайн одягу спрощувався.

2. У двадцятому столітті Париж став центром світової моди. Тут проводились сезонні покази мод.

3. З появою швейної машини почалося виробництво готового одягу.

4. На початку двадцятого століття люди могли шити одяг дома за допомогою збірника викрійок.

5. Такі винаходи дев’ятнадцятого століття як ткацький станок та швейна машина спростили виробництво одягу.

6. Соціальні зміни та наближення війни мали великий вплив на моду.

7. Нові винаходи допомагали прикрашати жіночій одяг.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

dressmaker, to simplify, fashion designer, invention, to emerge, pattern book, ready-to-wear clothing, mass production, social changes, introduction, seasonal shows, to reflect.



I Read and remember:

– азартна гра

– посол

– імператриця

– розкішний

– прикрашати

– бахрома

– тасьма

– китиця

– складка

– велика кількість




Charles Frederick Worth industrializes fashion

haute couture” or “high fashion”. Worth not only designed clothes for much of European nobility and many American millionaires, he also introduced many modern changes in the ways clothing was designed, made and sold.

, where he could study design. There the introduced his first new idea of offering dress design to customers at the fabric company. For the first time ladies could get the whole dress, design and fabric at the same location.

also came to the House of Worth for special gowns, making Worth the first celebrity fashion designer.

dress that hung straight in the front while draping in full pleats in the back.

However more significant Worth’s contributions were to fashion as an industry. He was the first designer who used living women as models, and the first who held fashion shows for revealing his new designs to customers. He also began to make high fashion more widely available by selling his designs not only to individual customers but also to other dressmakers, clothing manufacturers and to the newly invented department stores. Another introduction Worth made was the practice of mass-producing parts of a piece of clothing, then putting them together in different ways. For example, a certain type of sleeve could be produced in a bulk quantity and then used on several different types of dresses to produce a different look each time.

Worth’s ideas came at the time when clothing factories and department stores were new developments, and they created a new concept in fashion called “ready-to-wear” clothing. For the first time people could simply go to a store and buy fashionable clothes. Charles Worth died in 1895, but his sons continued to operate his successful fashion house for many years.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:


2. Who were the clients of Worth?





use for his dresses?

8. What were his contributions to design?



VI Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

модна тенденція



сторінка мод

– паризький друкар


II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

1. Fashion trends were set up by the middle class.

2. Tailors went round the country with life-sized dolls to spread new trends.


4. Fashion plates are illustrations of the latest clothing.

5. Nowadays fashion magazines are not so popular as they were in the seventeenth century.


II Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How were fashion trends spread around the country in the seventeenth century?

2. What are fashion plates?





I Listen and remember the following words:










тон, насиченість


ІІ Read and remember the following phrases:

– візуальний дизайн

– витвір мистецтва

види простору

звертати увагу

– безперервний рух

– кольори, що поєднуються


ІІІ Read and translate the following text:


Design elements

Design elements and principles describe fundamental ideas about the practice of good visual design. The elements form the vocabulary of the design, while the principles constitute the broader structural aspects of its composition.

The elements of design play an important role in the creation and success of a piece of art, whether it’s for outdoor, indoor, digital or print medium. These elements are: space, line, colour, shape, texture, form, value.

Space may have two dimensions or in other words flat (length and width), such as a floor. There are two types of space: positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. Negative space refers to the open space around the subject matter.

Shape is an area enclosed by lines. Shapes are two-dimensional or in other words flat.

Shapes in house decor and interior design can be used to add interest, style, theme to a design like a door. Shape in interior design depends on the function of the object like a kitchen cabinet door. Natural shapes forming patterns on wood or stone may help increase visual appeal in interior design. In a landscape, natural shapes, such as trees contrast with geometric such as houses.

Line is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. Line is the basic element of art that refers to the continuous movement of a point along a surface, such as a pencil or brush. Every line has length, thickness, and direction. There are curve, horizontal, vertical, diagonal, zig-zag, wavy, parallel, dash, and dotted lines.

new colours, can be mixed for intensity and value, can express moods and feelings, can be warm or cool, can give the illusion of distance.

Colour, and particularly contrasting colour is also used to draw attention to a particular part of the image.

There are primary colours, secondary colours, and tertiary colours.

Primary colours consist of red, blue, and yellow. Secondary – of orange, purple, and green. Secondary colour is made by mixing two primary colours on either sides of the colour wheel. Tertiary colours consist of red-orange, red-purple, blue-purple, blue-green, yellow-orange, and yellow-green. Tertiary colours are made by mixing a primary and secondary colour. Complimentary colours are colours that are opposite to each other or the colour wheel. They are used to create contrast.

Warm colours are a group of colours that remind us of warm places and things. Such are red, yellow, and orange. For example fire, sun and fireworks. Cool colours are group of colours that remind us of cool places and things such as purple, green and blue: ice, cool sky blue, and the sea.

Texture is the way the surface of an object actually feels of the fabrics, colours, and room accessories. It can be real or simulated, can form a surface, can be natural or man-made, can be affected by lighting conditions.

Form is any three dimensional object. Form can be measured, from top to bottom (height) side to side (width), and from back to front (depth). There are two types of forms, geometric and natural. Form may be created by combining of two or more shapes.

Value is an element of art that refers to the relationship between light and dark on a surface or object. It gives objects depth and perception. Value is also referred to as tone.

These elements are used to create the principles of design.


Answer the questions:

1. What elements of design do you know?

2. Why is colour the most expressive element of graphic design?

3. What is the role of shape?

4. What can line create?

5. What do we use to draw attention to a particular part of the image?

6. What are primary colours?

7. What colours are called secondary colours?

8. How do you create contrast?

9. What is texture?

10. What gives the objects depth and perception?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Natural … forming patterns on wood or stone may help increase visual appeal in interior design.

2. There are curve, horizontal, vertical, … , … , … , … , … , and dotted lines.

3. There are primary colours, … colours, and … colours.

4. Form is any three … object.

5. … is also referred to as tone.


VI Find English equivalents to the words:

описувати, довжина, форма, поверхня, створювати, змішувати, відображати, теплий, прохолодний, відстань.


VII Make up the sentences with the terms:

element of design, space, shape, line, colour, value, texture.


VIII Give definitions to the words:

line, texture, form, shape, colour, contrast.


IX Translate sentences into English.

1. Елементи та принципи дизайну використовуються для створення витворів мистецтва.

2. Кожний малюнок містить в собі майже усі елементи дизайну.

3. Існують криві, горизонтальні, вертикальні, діагональні, хвилясті, паралельні та інші лінії.

4. Колір може бути застосований до будь-якого іншого елементу.

5. Теплі кольори нагадують нам про літо, відпочинок та сонце.

6. Єдність – це візуальне поєднання різних елементів малюнка.

7. Горизонтальні лінії дають відчуття спокою та стабільності.

8. Лінії ділять простір, направляють око та створюють форми.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

elements of design, creating a work of art, line, shape, texture, colour, space, form.



I Read and remember:










включати в себе


ІІ Read the text and define the main idea:


Design principles

The principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art. Principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design.

Awareness of the elements and principles in design is the first step in creating successful visual compositions.

These principles are used in all visual design fields, including graphic design, industrial design, architecture and fine art.

Balance is a feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, and colour. Objects, values, colours, textures, shapes, forms, can be used in creating a balance in a composition. Balance is the weighted relationship between the visual elements.

Harmony – brings together a composition with similar units, it is the unity of all visual elements. Harmony in design is similarity of the components.

Harmony is achieved through the sensitive balance of variety and unity. Harmony is when some or many of the components such as furniture, drapes in a room share a common trait or two. A common trait could be: colour, shape, texture, material, theme, size, or functionality. For example a drapery could share the same colour that is on a pillow or wallpaper. The human brain usually likes design harmony.

Proportion is the ratio of one part of the composition to another. Proportion involves the relationship of size between the objects.

Proportion also depends on functionality of object. For the best proportion between a room and furniture, the sizes of furniture depends on the size of the room.

In interior design, proportions like the floor to ceiling may be used to obtain good visual appeal, functionality in home design.

Repetition is the use of an element or elements more than one time in a single composition. Any element that occurs is generally echoed, often with some variation to keep interest.

For example, placing four plant pots in a row and evenly spaced apart on a floor produces an organized look.

Unity is the organization of elements and principles into a whole. It is achieved by the use of balance, repetition and harmony. Two objects like living room and dining room can be unified by giving similar features like a hardwood floor design.

Unity helps the objects like furniture look like these belongs together.

The principles of design are as varied as attitudes regarding modern design. They differ both between the schools of thought that influence design, and between individual designers. Successful design incorporates the use of the principles and elements to serve the designer’s purpose and visual goals. There are no rules for their use.


III Make up a plan of the text.

in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. What are the principles of design?

2. What is the first step in creating successful visual compositions?

3. Where do we use these principles?

4. How can be balance determined?

5. How can one achieve harmony?

6. Why is proportion important?

7. What is repetition?

8. How is unity achieved?


VI Render the text in brief in a written form.


Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:



шанс, можливість

застереження, попередження


II Listen to the text and be ready to answer the questions:

What is the first mentioned thing while describing another person?

so important?


III Listen to the text again. Decide if the statements are true or false:

often comes to mind.

does not have cultural value.

Stop lights, fire engines, and fire call boxes are often bright yellow.


are thought to make people feel happy or talkative.



costume design


Listen and remember the following words:



індивідуальна особливість

група акторів

складати єдине ціле

відповідність, схожість

розрізняти між

дійова особа (п’єси)

ювелірні вироби




справити враження

– творча співпраця

– художник освітлення

one’s own right – по праву

– ескіз

– художник-декоратор

– можливі проблеми з костюмом


III Read and translate the following text:

The work of a designer

and textures that a costume designer chooses make an immediate and powerful visual statement to the audience. Creative collaboration among the costume designer, the director, the set and lighting designers ensures that the costumes are smoothly integrated into the production as a whole.

Stage costumes can provide audiences with information about a character’s occupation, social status, gender, age, sense of style and tendencies towards conformity or individualism. As well costumes can:

reinforce the mood and style of the production

distinguish between major and minor characters

suggest relationships between characters

change an actor’s appearance

suggest changes in character development and age

be objects of beauty in their own right.

Costume designs also need to include any accessories such as canes, hats, gloves, shoes, jewelry or masks. These costume props add a great deal of visual interest to the overall costume design. They are often the items that truly distinguish one character from another.

. They show the style, silhouette, textures, accessories and unique features of each costume. Once the show opens the designer’s work is essentially complete. Now it’s normally for the job of a wardrobe assistant to be sure that every aspect of the production runs just as the designer intended.


IV Answer the questions:

1. What is the essence of costume designer’s work?

2. What is the main task of a stage costume?

3. What can we get to know from the costume?

4. How do costume props help the overall design?

5. How does costume designer’s work start?

6. What is a costume plot?

7. How do final designs look?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. … such as hats, masks, gloves, etc. are very important for costume design.

2. Before starting his work a designer should know the number of … .

3. … shows the overall movement throughout the play.

4. When the show opens the work of … starts.


VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

вистава, попередній, проблема, брати напрокат, забезпечувати, зовнішній вигляд, загальний, сценарій, придатний, інвентар.




VII Make up sentences with the terms:

costume designer, costume props, rough sketch, costume plot, lighting designer, visual statement, accessories.


VIII Give definitions to the words:

jewelry, sketch, accessory, to revamp, visual, to distinguish, fashion.


IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Художник по костюмам працює разом з художником-декоратором, художником освітлення, групою акторів та режисером.

2. Аксесуари допомагають створити завершений образ акторів.

3. Художник по костюмам повинен передбачити всі можливі проблеми з костюмом.

4. З костюму ми можемо дізнатися про вік, соціальний статус, професію та смак героя.

5. Робота художника по костюмам починається з вивчення сценарію.

6. Після того як режисер схвалить попередні ескізи костюмів, художник по костюмам може створювати остаточний дизайн.

7. Остаточний дизайн відображає стиль, силует, аксесуари та особливості кожного костюму.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

costume designer, rough sketch, accessory, creative collaboration, to provide, final design, costume challenges, performance, character, to integrate, to reflect, costume props, costume plot.



I Read and remember:

абсолютно новий


– кольчуга





профспілка підприємців


вдалий хід






new materials.

dresses” made of plastic disks and in September he presented his first garments made of aluminum with leather and ostrich feather trimming.

sirens of the 1930s.

chainmail, which was stitched not with thread and needle but with hooks, rivets and pliers.

has never gave up his experiments with unusual materials.




as the fashion capital of the world, the city was gripped by gold fever. In 1951 Pierre Cardin showed his first collection. Since he had little starting capital, the collection was restricted to 50 coats and suits. His designs were an overwhelming success precisely because Cardin had avoided any imitation of the two most influential fashion geniuses of the period, Dior and Balenciaga.

joint lifestyle statement.

and allowing Cardin to return.




f the legendary Chanel style.



began his career as an independent couturier. His early collections featured severe combinations of blazer and shorts.

, who never succumbed to the pessimistic tendencies which took hold of some other designers.

does not sketch his designs but works directly with the fabric on the body of a model – for up to 12 hours a day, always with the inspiration of classical music.

a modernized version of hippie fashion: long, frilly, floral skirts with cropped tops in matte mauve and beaded, chiffon pants worn with feather-light jackets or fur-trimmed stoles.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

use in his work?


3. When did Pierre Cardin show his first collection?

4. What did his collection consist of?

5. Who designed the first unisex collection?

6. What does prêt-à-porter mean?

7. Did Karl Lagerfeld work as an independent designer?

of Chanel style?


create his designs?


VI Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words:




об’єднатися у профспілку




statements are true or false:

1. The profession of a costume designer emerged in the Middle Ages.

with their own costumes.

3. The first union members were costume designers.

1836 costume designers were recognized as a separate specialty.

5. Film designers appeared just for making films more cohesive.


and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How did the speciality of a costume designer appear?

2. What were the reasons for film designers to emerge?




Text A




взуття на високій підошві



сучасний, повсякденний

нагрудний знак

драпіроване вбрання





– вистава з містичним змістом

– історична точність

відображати на сцені


III Read and translate the following text:


Theatrical costume

Dionysus, the god of wine and revelry. The traditional costume for Greek tragedy consisted of a long tunic, a stylized mask for character recognition, and a pair of high-soled shoes. All of these garments were exclusively for theatrical use. One cannot act the hero in everyday wear. Short tunics, much like those worn by ordinary citizens, were thought appropriate to comedy.

, when Western theatre disappeared for eight hundred years.

From the fifth century mystery plays, which depicted the lives of the saints, were increasingly performed both inside the church and on church grounds. Then they moved to the market squares. Costumes worn in the early religious dramas were ecclesiastical garments.


Costumes for Shakespeare’s plays were a mixture of various periods. Most parts were performed in contemporary dress either owned by the actor or provided by the theater. A helmet or breastplate indicated a soldier. Fairies and nymphs might wear classical draperies.

turban indicated an Eastern character. A helmet signified a soldier. Performers provided their own wardrobe with the exception of special items provided by the theater.

The period between the 1770s and the 1870s saw a drive toward historical accuracy in costume design. Travelling became relatively easier, written reports and exhibitions increased people’s knowledge of other cultures. They wanted what they saw and read about to be reflected on the stage.


, therefore, may be more bold or brilliant than choices for everyday dress. Such choices depend on the interpretation of the costume designer in planning the outfit for each performer’s individual role and for the interaction among the performers.



What was the traditional costume for Greek tragedy?

When did the costume and scenery come to be even more important than the text?

What did costumes depict during the Renaissance?

Could you describe the costumes for Shakespeare’s plays?

When did realistic style become popular?


Are modern theatrical costumes designed to support the script?

What are special requirements for theatrical costumes?

be used in costumes for actors and dancers?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text.

Dionysus is the god of … .

The costume conventions established by Greeks remained the same until … .

Plays, which depicted the lives of the saints, were performed inside … … .

A helmet or breastplate indicated … .

They wanted what they saw and read about to be reflected on … .


VI Find the English equivalent to the words:

1) святкування

2) п’єса

3) модний

4) історична творчість

5) стилізована маска

6) відображати на сцені

7) підходящий, відповідний


stage, to create


VIII Give the definitions to the words and phrases:

comedy, tragedy, theatrical costume, culture, actor


IX Translate the sentences into English:

стилізованої маски.

В середні віки в п’єсах зображувалось життя святих.


В ХІХ столітті історична точність була важливою для театрального костюму.

В наш час костюми точно відображають історичний період та середовище.

Іноді колір театрального костюму повинен бути більш яскравим, ніж колір повсякденного одягу.

Шекспірівські п’єси грали в повсякденному одязі.

В 18 столітті актори використовували одяг зі свого гардеробу, окрім деяких речей, якими забезпечував театр.

Театральний костюм повинен дозволяти актору вільно рухатись.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:



Text B

I Read and remember:


зашнурований корсет

жіноча сорочка

рукава з прорізом

нижня спідниця

круги, які тримають спідницю

– відповідний


пачка балерини




Dance costume

and cultural values. Dance costumes can be divided into the following categories: historical, folk or traditional, ballroom, modern and musical dance costumes. Influence has spread from fashion to dance and back again.

From the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, festivities at European courts required highly elaborate dance costumes.


chemise and a petticoat, over which several layers of fabric were worn.

cha-cha-cha, mambo, and samba were more revealing.

choreographers reformed and liberalized traditional dance and its costumes. Moving away from traditional ballet techniques, modern dance gave rise to a new era of costuming. Costumes and makeup took on a unisex look as choreographers felt it less relevant to differentiate female and male dancers. In 1934, neoclassical dance choreographer George Balanchine was the first to dress ballet dancers in rehearsal clothes for public performances. The costumes were almost always black and white.

dress and tutus of female dancers with straight, often dark and long shirts or rehearsal leotards.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. What are the main categories of dance costumes?

very complex?

3. How were European folk-dance costumes decorated?

ballroom dances required an elegant style of dress?

5. How did choreographers change traditional dance and costumes after World War I?

6. What did George Balanchine do in 1934?

7. What is the role of costume in dance?


VII Render the text in brief in a written form.

Text C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:





пов’язка на голову



II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

century stage costumes were based on everyday-dress design.

2. Costumes for musical “My Fair Lady” didn’t surprise the audience.

3. Aerobic and dance outfits became popular on stage, but not in everyday life.

from the 1880s.

5. Dance tights, leggings, headbands spread from stage to fashion and vice versa.


III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:


What kind of outfits became popular in 1975?







Text A

I Listen and learn the following words:

виконання, інтерпретація

по відношенню до

майстер цеху


Read and learn the following phrases:

ій, декоратор

– конструювання декорацій

– масштабні моделі

– масштабні ескізи

– постановча картина

– візуально привабливий

– режиссер- постановник

– сценічна майстерня




Scenic design

Scenic design (also known as stage design, set design or production design) is the creation of theatrical scenery. Scenic designers have traditionally come from a variety of artistic backgrounds, but nowadays, generally speaking, they are professionals, often with degrees in theatre arts.

or physical appearance of the stage for a play, whether in rehearsal or performance. It reflects the way that the stage is composed artistically in regard to actors, shapes and colours. The stage picture should express good principles of design and use of space. It should be visually appealing for the audience or should express the show’s concept. The stage picture is also crucial for the creation of atmosphere for the audience.

responsible for creating scale models of the scenery, renderings, paint elevations and scale construction drawings as part of their communication with other production staff.

or production designers.

Like their American colleagues, European theatre designers and scenographers are generally trained with Bachelor of Arts degrees in theatre design, scenography or performance design.

paint elevations and research about props, textures, and so on. Models and paint elevations are generally hand-produced, though in recent years, many designers and most commercial theatres have begun producing scale drawings on computer drafting programs.


Day-to-day matters such as absences, breaks, tool repair are the concern of scene shop workers. The staff of a scene shop is usually referred to as scenic carpenters. Scenic painting is a separate aspect of scenic construction, although the scenic painter usually answers to the technical director.

There is also usually another person often referred to as Jack of all trades. He or she doesn’t specialize in a particular aspect of construction, but is skilled to some degree in most.


IV Answer the questions:

1. What is scenic design?



4. What is a scenic designer responsible for?

5. What are technical director’s duties?

6. How do designers use computer?

7. What is a technical director responsible for?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

specialists often with degrees in….

should express good principles of…..

The scenic designer is responsible for …. with the theatre director and other members of the production design team.

but ….





VI Find the English equivalents to the words:



VII Make up sentences with the terms:

stage design, professionals, principles of design, technical director, drawings,

hand-produced, show’s concept


VIII Give the definitions to the words and phrases:

c designer, scale models, props


IX Translate the sentences into English:

Дизайнери декорацій часто мають театральну освіту.

Постановча картина повинна бути візуально привабливою.

Інколи декоратори відповідальні не лише за дизайн сцени, а й за костюми, освітлення та звук.

Постановча картина виражає ідею шоу та створює необхідну атмосферу.

Дизайнери європейських театрів звичайно мають ступінь бакалавра мистецтв.

Декоратор повинен співпрацювати з режисером, щоб створити декорації для театральних вистав або фільмів.

Режиссер-постановник проектує декорації, підбирає матеріали та команду.



scenic designer, props, scale models, stage, principles of design, visually appealing, technical director, scene shop, responsible for

Text B


покладатися, довіряти



передавати, виражати




of it:


Scenic makeup

others have relied on makeup for the same purpose.

. Until the twentieth century, performers were expected to do their own makeup, as they were expected to supply their own stage costumes. The professional theatrical makeup artist is a modern phenomenon, as is the theatrical costume designer.

delineate and enhance the role of a character and to give performers an additional tool for conveying the characters being performed. Stage makeup is often used to create visual stereotypes that will be readily understood by the audience. Stage makeup is usually much more colourful and graphic than ordinary cosmetic makeup. When viewed closely, it can seem excessive and exaggerated, but it works when the performer is on stage being seen at a distance by the audience. Theatrical makeup itself is also heavier, denser, and more strongly coloured than ordinary cosmetics.

For many performers, the act of putting on makeup is an important part of the ritual of preparing for a performance; it allows the performer to move psychologically into the role of the character as the makeup is being applied.

Makeup artists are employed today in a variety of roles, and they often specialize in, for example, theatrical makeup, cinema makeup, fashion photography and runway makeup, or special effects. They typically require years of training and practice to perfect their skills. Social effects makeup is particularly prominent in the world of film, but has also played an important role in the success of many popular Broadway productions.

strong sense of theatre. Fashion makeup artists have begun to borrow liberally techniques from traditional stage makeup to create striking new designs. Meanwhile, theatrical makeup is enriched by new developments in film, fashion, photography and other media.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

Was an Ancient Geek theatre masked?

European theatre usually use stage make up?

What is the aim of theatrical makeup?

What is the difference between stage makeup and ordinary cosmetic makeup?

is makeup very important for many performers?

How do modern designers use stage makeup?


text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:





II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

The first retractable lipstick was designed in 1950.

century, theatrical performers did their own makeup.

anonymous one.

Makeup artist don’t have specialized skills to create style and image.

The professional makeup artist is a modern phenomenon.


III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:







remember the following words:

продуманий, обміркований


масштаб, розмір

II Read and remember the following phrases:


– попередній ескіз

– щира, відверта простота

попередній крок


III Read and translate the following text:


inside of a space — walls, windows, doors, textures, light, furnishings and furniture. All of these elements are used by interior designers to develop the most functional space for a building’s users.

People need space and equipment to make home life convenient and equally important. They need opportunity to express their own preferences and ideals of beauty.

The main principle of design of a modern house is the absence of any concrete style, a mixture of styles, an eclectic approach.

around contemporary family needs. “The Home of Ideas” meets our needs directly and takes advantage of technological progress. There is common practice of beginning home interior design or furniture selection by choosing a “style” on the basis of appearance alone.

Thoughtful planning leads to success. The needs of persons are carefully considered as the first step in planning of attractive environment for living. They need space for a great number of activities and a place to eat and sleep. Designers prepare many preliminary sketches or diagrams to illustrate the vision of interior space. Last come the refinement of the best sketches. Many designers use computer-aided design (CAD) tools to create and better visualize the final product. The occupants’ activities and needs are analyzed, and then the space is zoned and furnished so that the several activities have logical, well-equipped centers. These centers are sensibly located.

The furniture group becomes a visual and a focal point for the whole room. The living room is probably the most important “public” and the best decorated place in our home.

The bedroom is the most important private place in the home. That is why you should design and decorate your bedroom with only your taste to guide you. Each object expresses a purpose and material. There is a basic unifying idea of frank simplicity expressed in the uncomplicated shapes and many plain surfaces.

helps to ensure a quality design. These elements help the designer to create an interior that is physically and psychologically comfortable and attractive.


IV Answer the questions:

elements are used by interior designers to develop the most functional space?

What do people need in apartments?

What is the main principle of design of a modern house?


What were the first steps in planning the Home of Ideas?

What does the organization of furniture groups demonstrate?

Does the furniture group become a visual, focal point for the whole room and why?

help to ensure a quality design?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

are used by interior designers to develop the … for a building’s users.


The occupants’ activities and needs are analyzed, and then the … so that the several activities have logical, well-equipped centers.

The … becomes a visual, focal point for the whole room.

of the living room.

Each object expresses … .


сучасні потреби


VII Make up sentences with the terms:

introductory step


VIII Give definitions to the words:

ements, principles


IX Translate into English:

Людям потрібен простір та обладнання, щоб зробити домашнє життя зручним.

Головний принцип дизайну сучасного житла – вiдсутнiсть прив’язки до конкретного стилю – еклектика.

На першому кроці планування привабливого помешкання дизайнерами дбайливо враховуються потреби людей.

Багато дизайнерів використовують комп’ютер у своїй роботі.

Меблі – це домінуючий фактор у кожній кімнаті.

Організація елементів та принципів дизайну допомагає забезпечити якість дизайну.


Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:




I Read and remember:


– бадьорість

барви, відтінок

розслабитися, заспокоїтися




арматура освітлення


II Read the text and define the main idea of it:


in your home


creates great opportunities for designers.

is a serious course of study at universities.

for dining rooms.

Blue also has a restful effect, like water, can suggest coolness, calm and can help a south-facing room feel cooler, or a bedroom more conducive to sleeping. Green, blue and violet- are considered cool hues.

to make a room both comfortable and beautiful.

Paintings, sculpture, books and magazines, accessories, lighting fixtures bring additional contrast. This room is comfortable and attractive.

The great challenge to any designer is to achieve beautiful and livable schemes that meet the client’s needs.



IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

create great opportunities for designers.

tend to elicit certain emotions?

, emotion and your physical well-being?

What hues are considered warm and cool?

is a wonderful tool in interior design?


used intelligently?


does increase the sense of spaciousness?





I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

збільшувати, посилити

доповнювати, укомплектовувати


ручна робота


II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

Interiors are enriched by the addition of both functional and decorative accessories.


III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How do furniture and accessories work together?

2. Can accessories be a powerful tool in establishing the design theme and why?





I Listen and remember the following words:




валик (диванний)


– абажур


пергаментний папір

з оборками


II Read and remember the following phrases:

велика кількість


легкі штори

– ролети

– штори до підвіконня


яскравий колір


III Read and translate the following text:


Creative interiors

Every apartment can be harmonized by using various furnishings to create the desired look.

Cushions were perhaps the earliest form of “furniture” used by man and initially would probably have been made from straw or dried leaves covered with a skin or fur. Since then, cushions in all shapes and sizes have adorned chairs, settees beds and they are still used on the floor to sit on.

Cushions serve both a practical and a decorative purpose in a room as they can soften the angular lines of modern furniture, add colour and excitement to a neutral scheme or give an impression of ease and luxury. Even if a bed or sofa does not actually need cushions, a great pile of them is somewhat comforting and satisfying.

duty fabrics but the other shapes can be made with cotton, lace, satin, velvet, tapestry, gingham, patchwork; it all depends where the cushions are to be used and whether they are going to be purely decorative or receive a lot wear.

Basic curtains can be trimmed in various ways to produce different styles – smart and sophisticated, frilly and feminine, grand and theatrical. Provided it drapes or folds well, almost any material can be used for curtains. A fabric must complement the colour scheme of the room, but such things as the fabric weight and whether it is resistant to

fading should also be considered. To prevent fabric fading the curtains can be lined, or sheer curtains or roller blinds can be used to act as a sunscreen and bear the brunt of strong sunlight. Fabric weight is important too – a thick fabric used for sill-length curtains could look bulky and stiff, whereas used for floor-length curtains it would hang better and add importance to the window.

vital difference to a night-time setting. The style of a lamp should therefore blend with the other furnishings, so the choice of lamp base and the colour and texture of the lampshades are all important.

Parchment and silk have been used for many years for lampshades and they still look right in traditional settings.

A tablecloth is a piece of cloth used to cover a table. This piece of home furnishings is creatively designed and adorned with laces, embroidery, embossing etc.

Tablecloths are produced in various ways, designs, and patterns. The demand for tablecloths is on the rise, as it is widely used for both functional and decorative purpose. Tablecloths are also used for protecting the table from scratches and stains. Damask and lace constructions are the most used for tablecloths.



civilization, carpets and rugs have formed a part of different cultures, countries and civilizations. Priceless carpets and rugs made over hundreds of years ago in the East are exhibited in museums today.

Rugs and carpets serve as a colourful foundation for all the decorative plan and colour scheme for various rooms, schools, office buildings, hospitals, hotels etc.

arpet’ are often used synonymously, but the form or the size in which these coverings are manufactured differs. Rugs may vary in shape and size. Rugs and carpets are manufactured according to certain size standards.


IV Answer the questions:

What makes any apartment harmonized?

What purposes do cushions serve in a room?

What are the reasons for choosing fabrics for cushions?

What should be done to prevent curtain fabric fading?

Why are lampshades very important in a furnishing scheme?

What materials are used for lampshades?


What can you say about the floor coverings?

scheme for various rooms?




1. There are enormous varieties of cushion shapes … .

2. Basic curtains can be trimmed in various ways to produce different styles … .

3. Lampshades are essential functional items and … .

tablecloth is … .

5. Floor coverings have been made from … .


VI Find the English equivalent to the words:

покриття для підлоги, ліжко, диван, штори на підкладці, абажур, з оборками, легкі штори, ролети, канапе




apartment, various furnishings, cushions, decorative purpose, modern furniture, basic curtains, the style of a lamp, tablecloth, floor covering, rugs and carpets


VIII Give the definitions to the words and phrases:

cushion, floor cushion, lampshade, furnishing, tablecloth, floor covering, rug, carpet


IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Щоб надати кімнаті бажаного вигляду можна використати різні предмети меблів.

2. Подушки в інтер’єрі можна застосувати за практичним або декоративним призначенням.

3. За формою подушки можуть бути квадратними, круглими, у формі серця, тощо.

4. Майже кожну тканину можна використовувати для штор, якщо вона добре драпірується, або спадає фалдами.

5. Скатертини оздоблюються мереживом, вишивкою, гофрируванням.



colours, natural materials, durable, rugs and carpets



I Read and remember:




дитяче ліжко



дуже великого розміру

набитий очісом


губчатий, м’який

картата ковдра, плед

(матрац або ковдра)


of it:


Textile items

Bed sheets and pillows cases are important home furnishings items used for domestic and industrial usage. A sheet is a large rectangular piece of cotton or linen or a blend of other yarns and used for covering bed. Pillow cases are also made in different sizes for covering pillows and cushions.


made fibers are used for manufacturing different types of blankets.

knitted. They can also be needles or made my flocking fibers onto a polyurethane foam base.

A variety of man made and natural fibers are used for manufacturing blankets. These fibers are either used wholly or blended for making high quality blankets. Some of the extensively used materials are: cotton, wool, nylon, acrylic, polyester.


A conventional blanket is a type of blanket that is usually woven with soft-twist yarns in the filling and higher twist yarns in the warp. The fabric is heavily napped for producing a thick, close and fuzzy surface.

Most conventional blankets are made of pure or blended wool, and are the heaviest. These blankets are however, not the warmest. Acrylic blankets are light in weight and also quite warmer than the woolen ones. Acrylic and polyester blankets are fairly durable. This type of blanket is generally the most durable and long lasting.

olyurethane foam base covered with fiber flocking, usually nylon and held in position with the help of an acrylic adhesive. The blanket is quite soft, resilient and spongy.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussions:

mportant home furnishings items used for domestic and industrial usage?

What is a sheet?

What is a fitted sheet?

What are typical mattresses sizes?

What materials are used for sheets manufacture?

What are the materials extensively used for making blankets?

What is a conventional blanket?

What are the warmest blankets?


What can you say about floor coverings?


VI Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words and word-combinations



бути прикріпленим



«неписане» правило


інформація по догляду




ІІ Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

The care of fabrics used for home furnishing has always been a concern for manufacturers.

Manufacturers do not assist the process by providing adequate labelling with proper care instructions.

Consumers are instructed to use appropriate cleaning method – washing or dry cleaning.

to the fabric.

The care instructions may be woven, printed or inscribed in an appropriate manner.


III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

What does the permanent care labeling require?

What is the purpose of a label?





I Read and remember the words and their translation:




альна зала









II Read and remember the following phrases:

– квіткове аранжування, оформлення квітів




– всебічно освічений







Floral art

as well as their arrangement and selling. However, the floral industry is the basic drive behind floristry.

. Fashion sometimes plays a role in floristry; what is considered the flower that everyone needs to have today can change very quickly.

are also a significant portion of a florist’s business. The floral business has been impacted significantly by the corporate and social event world as flowers play a large part in the decor of special events and meetings. Centerpieces, entryways, reception tables, bridal bouquets and stage sets are only a few examples of how flowers are used in business and social event arenas.


and other more complicated arrangements is also important. Wreaths for example can be made of many different types of flowers and plants, and often include ribbon and artificial product.

They enable you to develop and expand your floristry skills and learn practical business skills, giving a well-rounded foundation for careers in the industry. Floristry courses provide the opportunity to study international floral design, interior landscaping, botany, horticulture, health and safety, helping to understand colour, shape, design and display, identify plants and flowers, how to work with people and individually.


Answer the questions:



What flowers are mainly sold in florist shops?

How does the corporate and social event world impact the floral business?

Does floral business depend on fashion? In what way?

What is the difference between oriental and western styles of floral design?

What skills are needed for the craft of floristry?

What influences the choice of flowers that will look good together?

What kinds of floral arrangements exist?

What do floristry courses provide?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

, creative flair, baskets


Flowers play a large part in the ….. of special interior premises.

….. is characterized by rare tropical flowers and carnations.

….. often includes ribbon and artificial product.

Floristry requires a certain ….. and imagination.

….. flowers are also a significant portion of a florist’s business.

Designs of ….. style often include a ‘less is more’ motto.


Floristry refers to the cultivation, ….. and selling flowers.

Flowers can be arranged in ….., bowls and ……

and flowers.


VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

и, сезонний бізнес, тюльпани, квіти на знак подяки, значна частка, букет нареченої.


Make up sentences with the terms:

social event world, flower-only outlets


VIII Give definitions to the words and word-combinations:

materials, flower-only outlets


Translate the sentences into English:

дизайн – це мистецтво створювати красиві та збалансовані композиції з квітів.

Флористи займаються не лише зрощуванням квітів та їх оформленням, але і їх продажем.

Квіткові композиції можуть складатися з живих квітів, трав, листяних орнаментів або штучних матеріалів.

Найпоширенішими квітами, які продаються у квіткових крамницях, є троянди, тюльпани, гвоздики, ромашки, іриси, гербери, нарциси та ін..

Мода впливає на квітковий бізнес так само, як і на інші сфери нашого життя.

Різдво, День Святого Валентина, Пасха, весілля, похорони, професійні, корпоративні та інші свята впливають на квітковий бізнес.

Квітковий дизайн в східному стилі вирізняється простотою і чистотою ліній і кольору.

Мистецтво квіткового дизайну потребує різних навичок, всебічних глибоких знань та творчого відчуття.

Знання, необхідні для кар’єри у квітковому бізнесі, включають вміння створювати оригінальні квіткові композиції, що базуються на знаннях основних принципів дизайну: балансу, гармонії, кольорів, ліній, форм та культурних відмінностей і потреб.

Одним із видів оформлення квітів є вінок, до складу якого окрім різних квітів і рослин можуть входити стрічки та інші штучні елементи.


Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

opportunity to study



I Read and learn:

безтактовний, вульгарний, непривабливий

той, що відхиляється у різні боки, що розходиться




, гордовитість

цнотливість, невинність

доброчесність, гідність

відданість, сильна прихильність


Read the text and define the main idea of it:


Flower symbolism

cultures. Such differences can lead to difficult issues when a bouquet of white lilies, for example, is delivered.




Make up a plan of the text.

in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

Why do flowers have various different meanings in different cultures?


What usually determines the choice of flowers?

can you remember?

coincide when being used in different areas of design? Explain your answer.

What flowers are presented for various occasions? Give examples.

How can flowers be used in interior design?

What can flowers communicate?

What specific meaning of flowers do you know?

choice exist in different cultures?

VI Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:






, служитель культу




ствол, стебло


II Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true or false:


triangle delineated by three main points.

Ikebana is the art form dependent on its religious origins.

in some schools.

In Ikebana arrangements all three elements must be different.


III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

What flower arrangement is typical for western cultures?

What is the main rule of creating Ikebana?





I Listen and remember the following words:

радити, пропонувати


гладенький сяючий



нижня щелепа


нестійка фарба

окремі пасма



II Read and learn the following phrases:

зручний для укладки


– зачіска


корінь волосся

досягати природного ефекту (вигляду)

– причісуватися

– додати об’єму

– гребінець з тонкою ручкою


Read and translate the following text:


Modern hairdressing procedures

­dresser once a week, while still others may see him every day for a combing.

haps every day. Shampoos are soapy or synthetic detergents in liquid, gel, lotion, or cream form and may have special uses.

achieve a natural effect.

cover gray hair. Permanent tints penetrate the hair shaft and permanently change the pigment inside.

Some women, especially those with straight or fine hair, may want a permanent wave, which gives the hair adaptability to a set. The hair is wrapped around plastic rods and treated with a permanent wave solution.

waves for gray hair and children’s hair.

to help hold the hair style in place.


IV Answer the questions:

What are the most important qualities for hair?

What hairstyles do fashion magazines suggest?

What is the best style for a long face?

How must your hairstyle be maintained?

How often do women go to the hairdresser?

What is a result of a permanent waving?

Why do women use combing out?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

A …… needs a style that cuts across the square corners at the temples and is full around the jaw.

Clean healthy … is the basis of any hair style.

achieve a …..

… are synthetic or soapy detergents in liquid, gel and lotion form.

… and treated with a permanent wave … .

rinses make hair slightly darker and can effectively cover … .

The final step in creating a hair style is to … the hair.



VI Find the English equivalents to the words:



VII Make up sentences with the terms:

ength, cutting, gray hair, bang


VIII Give definitions to the words and phrases:

to create, hair spray, shampoo


IX Translate the sentences into English:

, укладками та стрижкою.

– кожного дня.




широкого чуба.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

waving, combing out, to create


I Read and remember:

перукарська справа

вкладати волосся


бідні люди

відмова, відречення

незаміжня жінка

одружена жінка



II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

The art of hairdressing

art of arranging the hair or otherwise modifying its natural state. Hairdressing has been an important part of the dress of both men and women since antiquity and, like dress, serves a number of functions.

renunciation of the world, and in the single long lock on the shaved heads of Muslim men, by which, they believed, Allah would pull them up to heaven.

maidens wore uncovered flowing hair, while matrons bound theirs under veils. As a sign of mourning the ancient Egyptians, whose heads were usually shaven, grew long hair, and long haired Hindu widows cut off their hair.

all classes eagerly followed the example of film stars.

of their own hair or of a wig that best suit their needs and tastes.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. When did people start to arrange the hair?

2. How did primitive men indicate status?

to cut off their long hair?

4. How could hair arrangement proclaim marital status?

century hair styles?

6. How do different religions influence the hair style?


VI Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words:










II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false.

The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage was found in Ancient Greece.

In the western world, the advent of cosmetics was in the middle ages.

up acceptable only for use by upper classes.

Cosmetics led to negative effects: deformities, blindness and even death.

estimated at 18 billion dollars.


III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:


2. Why were cosmetics dangerous in some historical periods?



Graphic design

Text a

isten and remember the following words:



створення зображення; запис зображення на електронні носії


складати; встановлювати

повторне оцінювання

масштабна сітка





– оформлення сторінки

– редагування замовника

– бути в рамках чогось

– незначна різниця

– мистецтво реклами


III Read and translate the following text:


The art of graphic design

client’s edits, technical preparation and mass production are usually required but as a rule not considered to be within the scope of graphic design.

art the ultimate objective is the sale of goods and services. In graphic design ‘the essence is to give order to information, form to ideas, expression and feeling to artifacts that document human experience. Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty…’

Principles and elements of design

Graphic design theory

of the design elements creates mood, style, message and a look.

There are research and planning that are needed for most design work:

which encompasses the step-by-step and often complex path that a designer takes toward a design solution through research, exploration, re-evaluation and revision of a design problem. This process starts with the client and ends with the finished design product.

to help improve or speed up the layout of images and text. Like the steel internal frame of building the grid helps the designer to place information on paper or screen in a way that improves the design visually and its usability.

impact and use of technology for design solutions. Graphic designers are usually first to adopt and incorporate new technology in solutions or concepts when possible. This experimentation is not always to the benefit of the design or the user.



1. How does graphic design present information?

2. What crafts does graphic design embrace?

3. What does graphic design refer to?

4. What do you know about the history of graphic design?

5. What is the essence of graphic design?

6. There are some elements of design. What are they?

7. Do you know the principles of design? Name them.

8. What are the steps of a graphic designer’s work?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Their designs have much in common, there is … between them.

2. … is the sale of goods and services.

graphic designer should keep up to the times and use … .



VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

складати, вивчення, покращувати


VII Make up sentences with the terms:

fine art


VIII Give definitions to the words:

ayout, visual, typography, grid


IX Translate the sentences into English:

1. Графічний дизайнер повинен володіти багатьма навичками, серед яких – оформлення сторінки.

з’явився у 20 столітті.

3. Такі елементи як колір, форма, зовнішній вигляд, величина, лінія (контур), текстура мають велике значення для графічного дизайну.

4. Ми часто плутаємо поняття реклами, графічного дизайну та образотворчого мистецтва тому, що іноді між ними майже нема різниці.

5. Процес дизайну починається з замовника, а закінчується завершеною продукцією.

6. Більша частина роботи дизайнера потребує дослідницької роботи та планування.

7. Кожен професіонал знає такі принципи дизайну як ритм, баланс, виразність та єдність.


the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

ual design


Text B

I Read and remember:




найсучасніший, проте прийнятний


з точки зору

брати до уваги

відповідати чомусь


the text and define the main idea of it:


Raymond Loewy. The father of industrial design

‘It all must start with an inspired, spontaneous idea’.

‘The main goal is not to complicate the already difficult life of the consumer’.

‘Between two products equal in price, function and quality, the one with the most attractive exterior will win’.


has ever known and has had a significant impact on the tastes and lifestyles of several generations. Loewy’s design philosophy still has an influence on the industrial design world today.

working as a consultant for more than 200 companies and creating product designs for everything from cigarette packs and refrigerators to cars and spacecrafts. Loewy lived by his own famous MAYA principle – Most Advanced Yet Acceptable.

; and Company of Industrial Design, Paris.

Loewy was the first person to understand design as a marketing factor: ‘if you have two products which do not differ in terms of price, function and quality, it is the product’s attractive external appearance which wins the race’. Raymond Loewy used these pragmatic words to outline his perception of design and this was certainly the secret of his success.

Many of the products that Loewy designed are still familiar to us today. These include the ‘Studebaker’, a symbol of American cars and the ‘Frigidaire’, the legendary refrigerator. Loewy created the trademarks of this century’s technical progress. For example, the Shell logo, the Coca Cola bottle, the Exxon and BP symbols all carry his signature. Raymond Loewy also designed the packet of the famous American cigarette brand, ‘Lucky Strike’ and this is the one that is still used today.

For Loewy it was not design alone that was definitive. He believed that the job of a designer was more complex than that. He investigated the market as well as inquiring into the wishes and needs of the customer. In addition to design he gave equal rights to the requirements for user friendliness, ease of use, production costs and retail price.



III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. What is Loewy’s impact on industrial design?

Most Advanced Yet Acceptable’?

3. How did Raymond Loewy realize design?

4. What are the most famous products Raymond Loewy designed?

5. What is a secret of his success? Give your reasons.


VI Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

характерна риса


помічати; відчувати


– між іншим

– змінювати масштаб

statements are true or false:

1. Navigation system is the only feature that unites different layouts.

2. One part of human brains is humanitarian, the other one – technical.

3. It doesn’t matter where to place objects on a website.

4. Most buttons on a website are located at the upper left part.

5. The website window can be rescaled.

and be ready to answer the questions:

1. How does website layout differ from other layouts?

2. What is the visual concept?





I Read and remember the words and their translation:





передача даних

збільшений, перевантажений





II Read and remember the following phrases:

– застосування веб, мережеві підведення

– знайдіть машинної оптимізації

– навігаційні інструменти

– аспект спрямування

типографіка, графічне оформлення друкованого тексту




Principles and elements of web design

Web design is a kind of graphic design intended for development and styling of objects of the Internet’s information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and aesthetic qualities.

The main task of web design is perhaps the creation of a website or a web page.


number of other aspects. A successful website, evidently, is the one that is capable of attracting quality visitors and retain them. The core of this attractiveness is its content. However, only content is not enough – just as a good product needs good packaging a successful site needs elegant presentation and promotion.

When creating a website or web page, the 5 golden principles of design: balance, rhythm, proportion, dominance, and unity should always be kept in mind.


most important section of the page. If you have a picture of a bird on the top left corner of your page, make sure it is facing inward and that its beak is leading the eye to the centre of the page, not away from it. The same applies to all graphics. Faces should ‘look’ to the centre of the page. Cars should be ‘parked’ facing towards the centre of the page. Roads, neck ties etc. should all be placed to lead the eye across from left to right, or down from top to bottom.

Any web design must be stylish, using original illustrations, not downloaded ones. When designing, the target audience and subject must be addressed. The overall effect should be that of exclusivity.


Answer the questions:

What is web design?

What disciplines are incorporated in web design?

How can a successful website be characterised?

What 5 golden principles of design should always be kept in mind, when creating a website or web page?

What professional and personal qualities are needed for a web designer?

What does the work of a web designer include?

What contributes greatly to the first impression and overall image of a website?

How should content and graphics be related?

What rule should be followed, when arranging the graphics on the page?

What skills are necessary for web designers and developers?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

retain, rhythm, quantitative, visual, directional aspect


Web design is intended for development and … of objects of the Internet’s information environment to provide them with high-end consumer features and … qualities.

for the Web is very complicated.

A successful website, evidently, is the one that is capable of attracting quality visitors and … them.

The core of a website’s … is its content.

A successful site needs elegant presentation and ….

The 5 golden principles of design: balance, …, proportion, dominance, and … should always be kept in mind.


Web designers have the task of creating the … of a website by choosing the style, and by designing attractive graphics, images, and other … elements.

Any graphic image which has a … should be placed to point towards the most important section of the page.

Web designers may make decisions regarding what … is included on a web page, where things are placed, and how the aesthetic and … is maintained from one screen to the next.


Find the English equivalents to the words:



Make up sentences with the terms:

tools, look and feel, visual elements, lay-out, exclusivity


VIII Give definitions to the words and word-combinations:



Translate the sentences into English:

Процес створення вебсторінок або вебсайтів дуже складний.

Вебсайти дуже відрізняються за змістом, стилем та багатьма іншими аспектами.

Ядром привабливості сайту є його зміст.

Графіка і розташування сайту сприяють першому враженню і загальному іміджу.

Вебдизайнери приймають рішення відносно змісту веб-сторінки і розташування зображень.

Якість змісту сайту завжди повинна бути збалансована з відмінною графікою.

Будь-яке графічне зображення, яке має напрямок, треба розмістити так, щоб воно було спрямоване до найголовнішої секції сторінки.

Будь-який вебдизайн має бути стильним, з використанням оригінальних ілюстрацій.

Вебдизайнери також проектують і розвивають навігаційні інструменти сайту.

5 золотих принципів будь-якого дизайну включають рівновагу, ритм, пропорцію, переважання і єдність.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

‘s work, graphics, skills, training, sketch, style, balance



I Read and learn:

заплутатись, дати маху


– сила



– боязкість



на перший план


Read the text and define the main idea of it:



, when dealing with international visitors.


black is for mourning.

green has religious significance (Catholic). In some tropical countries green is associated with danger.

orange has religious significance (Protestant).

represents royalty, spirituality, nobility, ceremony, mystery, transformation, wisdom, enlightenment.

of purity. It is often used in wedding outfits.

it signifies virginity.

yellow is sacred and imperial.

and reds dazzle the eyes.

text should always be avoided, as it might be great clarity wise but has a tendency to make visitors nauseous.


Make up a plan of the text.

in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

an important part of any design?

are accepted in our country?

What different meanings of blue exist?

have religious significance? Illustrate.

is associated with nobility and royalty?


How does the meaning of white vary from culture to culture?

in web design?

should be avoided in web design?

do you prefer to work with? Why?


Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

мати на меті, націлитись









Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true or false:


and a more limited amount of shades that can be analyzed.

wheel was joined at the ends to display the natural hue progression.

have never been studied.

Johann Wolfgang Goethe modified the wheel to the form we see today.


Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

divided with psychological effects taken into account?

for web design?






I Read and remember the words and their translation:

фіксувати, захоплювати


пристрій, прилад

зберігати, запам’ятовувати



робити наголос, підкреслювати


зображувати, відображати



II Read and remember the following phrases:

– на основі галогеніду срібла

– експозиція з заданим часом

– самовдосконалення, самовдоволення

– світлочутливий

– художня, мистецька фотографія

– загальновідомий, банальний

– пейзажна фотографія

художня творчість

– редакційний, поліграфічний

– неживий, млявий




Photo design

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Photography is used to preserve memories of favourite times, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment. It is thinking made visual.

uses for both business and pleasure. Photography can also be viewed as a commercial and artistic endeavour.

or with an in-house corporate design team.

may be nude, but this is not always the case.

Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details.

usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.

can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography, but requires some special skills.

Editorial photography illustrates a story or idea within the context of a magazine.

can be considered a subset of editorial photography as the photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story.

and sold directly to the end user of the images.

in its turn demonstrates life of the animals.

or other types of photography and the associated techniques does not remove this personal aspect from the work of the great photographers.

Answer the questions:


What storage media can be used?

What was the basis for photo design?

Why do people take photographs?

What specific branches of photography are mentioned in the text? Add to the list.

How can you describe fashion photography?

What is still life?

What is preferably used to capture details?

How can photographers be often categorized?


V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

ildlife, editorial, advertising, landscape, wedding, artistic endeavour, still life, fashion, infrared camera, self-fulfilment, glamour, food


Photography is not only the process of taking shots. It is … .

People take photographs not only for commercial purposes but for … as well.

… photography is made to illustrate and sell a service or product.


… photography accentuates on the model.

Inanimate subject matter, natural or man-made commonplace objects are depicted in … .

captures the bridal couples during wedding ceremonies.

A story or main idea for the magazine is illustrated in … photography.

… is similar to still life photography.

… is often used to capture specific details.

The results of … photography are usually sold to tourists as postcards.

demonstrates life of the animals.

Find the English equivalents to the words:

вулична фотографія, документальні зйомки, в свою чергу, фотожурналістика, художня фотографія, натюрморт, мистецька фотографія, портрет, робити внесок, зберігати спогади, пристрій для зйомки в інфрачервоних променях, місце натурних зйомок, портретний живопис, модельна фотографія


Make up sentences with the terms:




VIII Give definitions to the words and word-combinations:

commercial photography


Translate the sentences into English:

Фотографія цікавила вчених і митців від самого виникнення.

Фотографія зберігає найкращі спогади, розповідає історії з нашого життя, передає наші думки.

Фотографія створюються завдяки відображенню світла, що проходить через лінзу фотокамери, на світлочутливому носії.

Фотографія – це художня творчість.

Рекламний бізнес неможливий без творчих зусиль фото-відео дизайнерів.

Натюрморт відображує зображення неживих загальновідомих природних речей.

Фотожурналістика дуже близька до поліграфічної зйомки, але її результати стосуються здебільшого матеріалів новин.

Модельна фотографія фокусується на зображенні манекенниць і моделей для журналів переважно з чоловічою аудиторією.

Портретний живопис зазвичай зорієнтований на конкретного споживача.

Фотограф – це той, хто робить знімки за допомогою фотокамери, дизайнер – створює неперевершені картини, кожна з яких варта тисячі слів.


X Speak on the topic using the following words and word combinations:

based medium, both business and pleasure, artistic endeavour,

“one picture is worth a thousand words”, various specific branches of photography, commercial photography, a photographer, to specialize in



I Read and remember:

ретельно продуманий, розвинутий

витончений, складний


послідовність кінофрагментів/кадрів

чіткість зображення, роздільна здатність

– частота кадрів



каламутність відбитку


– ключовий/опорний кадр

робити вставки


Read the text and define the main idea of it:


Video design

A lot of people when using a graphic motion design application, find it is an object-oriented application. These media files can be still images in pixel or vector format, movie sequences and audio files. Inside the application a ‘new composition’ with its own and independent timeline, resolution, frames-per-second and pixel size can be created.

When creating a composition, one or more of media files can be inserted. The files appear on the composition window, as well as in the timeline.

through time.



III Make up a plan of the text.

in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

What is video design?

Where and how can video design be implied?

What influenced the development of this area of design?

What computer programs are used in motion design field?

What skills are needed to become a video designer?

What kinds of media files do you know?

What can be created inside those files?

What properties do the layers have?

How do the layers merge with each other?

What is one of the basic principles in computer animation?


Render the text in brief in a written form.



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

– оптична фільтрація

зменшувати, скорочувати

– довжина хвилі

позитивний діапозитив

– подальша обробка

– перевага

– висвітлення, привернення уваги

– тінь

– допустимий інтервал витримок при зйомці; інтервал експозиції

– архівне зберігання


Listen to the text and decide if the statements are true or false:

Film, optics and photographic paper give the opportunity to capture shadow and highlight details.

Colour photography displays the classic monochrome look.

Digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium.

Black-and-white photography became available in the mid 1800s.

professional photographers prefer analogue photography because of the wide exposure latitude of film.



Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

Why do more than two-thirds of professional photographers prefer the results of analogue photography?

colour photography form images?





I Listen and remember the following words:







II Read and remember the following phrases:





III Read and translate the following text:




Corporate identity

scheme or a word, written in a certain way or even a picture.

The concept of corporate identity and its management evolve over the last 50 years, and programs are now used in most large organizations, in the private as well as the public sector.

Corporate identity manifests itself in many ways. It’s a corporate title, logo (logotype or logogram), and supporting devices. They are commonly assembled within a set of guidelines.

Every organization, regardless of its size, has a corporate identity, and it can be either formal or informal. It allows customers, suppliers and staff to recognize, understand and clearly describe the organization.

The function of corporate identity consists in reflecting of the organization, its goals in a consistent and positive manner.

Corporate communication, corporate image, and corporate reputation are the fundamental variables in the process of managing corporate identity. It is the unique, individual personality of the company that differentiates it from other companies.

Usually, a company focuses on providing uniform communications which present the corporation in a positive light. These communications also encourage consumers to think of the company when they need a specific product or service. Communications include things like advertisements, press releases, news features, and phone services. Finally, corporate behavior and ethics are a crucial component of corporate identity. Since some consumers actually base their buying habits on how companies act, many companies focus on presenting a very specific image.

appears consistently throughout the McDonald’s packaging and advertisements.


IV Answer the questions:

1. What is corporate identity?

2. What does corporate identity manifest itself in?

3. What are the fundamental variables in the process for managing corporate identity?

4. Does a company focus on providing uniform communications?

5. What do consumers actually base their buying habits on?

6. Why are only a few of the thousands of ideograms recognized without name?

V Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. The fundamental variables in the process for managing corporate identity are, … , and corporate reputation .

2. Corporate behavior and ethics are a crucial component of … .

3. … include things like advertisements, press releases, news features, and phone service.

4. Corporate identity allows customers, suppliers and staff to … and clearly describe the organization.

5. Usually, a company focuses on providing … which present the corporation in a positive light.

6. Corporate identity manifests itself in a corporate title, … , and supporting devices.


VI Find the English equivalents to the words:

ем, реклама, ключовий компонент


VII Make up sentences with the terms:

logotype, ideograms, trademark


VIII Give definitions to the words:









Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:




I Read and remember:

нести, мати (знаки)

емблема видавництва, типографії на підручнику

– бути обізнаним, усвідомлювати


– приглушений відтінок

– насичення


II Read the text and define the main idea of it:


The history of logo design

. Logo design history had the modest beginnings as a code consisting of a single letter, and later a design or mark consisting of two or more letters intertwined. The code may be all — the letters of a name, the initial letters, or the surname of a person for use on stationery or business cards.

(omega) of the Apocalypse on each side of the coin. The Middle Ages were extremely productive in inventing code for churchmen, artists and commercial people.

In the thirteenth century, logo design evolved from simple code to trademarks for traders and merchants. These early examples of logo design include masons’ marks, goldsmith’s marks and paper maker’s watermarks. Other related logo devices are the colophons used for identification by publishers and printers.


The mark of a good logo is legibility and good brand recognition. The diversity of products and services need the new, unique logos.

red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with the health and hygiene sector, and light blue or silver is often used to reflect diet foods. For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate reliability, quality, relaxation, or other traits.


III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. What does the word “logo” mean?


3. What monogram is the most famous of early logos?

4. Did logo design evolve from simple code to trademarks?

5. What early examples of logo design do you know?

6. What are other related logo devices?

7. How did the appearance of the information age change the face of logos and logo design?

8. The mark of a good logo is legibility and good brand recognition, isn’t it?

considered important to brand recognition?

associated with certain emotions and why?

VI Render the text in brief in a written form



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:




II Listen to the text. Decide if the statements are true or false:

The cards, which carry information and contact details of any business or individual, are called business cards.

in the fifteenth century.

3. Visiting cards or calling cards were the fashion among the working classes.

4. Traders used business cards only to provide route-ways for customers.

simplistic business card is a mark of professionalism.


III Listen to the text again and be ready to answer the questions:

information do the business cards carry?









Leonardo da Vinci

of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.





The painter

century’s greatest painters – Pablo Picasso.

– Spanish for pencil, and he learned to draw before he could talk. He was the only son in the family and very good-looking, so he was thoroughly spoilt. His father was an amateur artist. Pablo often watched his father paint and sometimes was allowed to help. One evening his father was painting their pigeons when he had to leave the room. He returned to find that Pablo had completed the picture and it was so amazingly lifelike that he gave his son his own palette and brushes and never painted again. Pablo was just 13. Many people realized that he was a genius but he disappointed those who wanted him to become a traditional painter. He was always breaking the rules of artistic tradition and shocked the public with his strange and powerful pictures. His paintings of people were often made up of triangles and squares with their features in the wrong place. His work changed our ideas about art, and to millions of people modern art means the work of Picasso. He created over 6000 paintings, drawings and sculptures.




Powerful leaders had always set an example by their clothes.



First fashion publications

ons in the twenty-first century



The importance of colour

When you describe to another person how someone you noticed was dressed, what is the first thing you mention? For most people it is colour. Even when you recall clothes you wore years ago, colour often comes to mind. You probably have found memories of a favourite coat or outfit you once wore. The chances are that you remember most about it is its colour. More than any other feature of clothes, colour is what you notice. It catches your eye, and you remember it. Colour also has cultural value. Think of all the ways that we communicate in our society through colour. Red is often a sign of warning or of an emergency. Stop lights, fire engines, and fire call boxes are often bright red. The colours pink, blue, and yellow are sometimes associated with babies. White is the colour of innocence (in Western cultures). Black is the colour of mourning. Different colours symbolise flags of all countries in the world. Colour has also personal value. It affects how you feel. Pastel or soft colours are thought to relax people. Bright colours are thought to make people feel happy or talkative. A colour may have an even more personal meaning for you. You may find that you feel especially good wearing a certain shade of blue. You may always reach for your bright green coat on gloomy, rainy days because it cheers you to wear a favourite colour. When you are particularly happy, you may pull a neutral or dark colour from your closet.



The appearance of a costume designer profession

Costume design as a profession is a twentieth-century phenomenon. Until the end of the nineteenth century, costumes for popular entertainments were assembled piecemeal, either by the director or the actor-manager. Actors working with more than one company might travel with their own costumes.

The actor’s strike of 1919 put an end to the practice of performers providing their own wardrobes. Thereafter, producers were required to supply costumes for everyone by contract. Then the stage designers unionized. As part of the collective agreement producers of Broadway and touring productions had to hire a union designer. The first union members were set designers who might also design costumes. By 1936 the union recognized costume designers as a separate specialty.

r film, and from silent to talkie, required costumes especially designed for the medium. The early film distorted colours. Blue on film appeared white. Red photographed as black. The early microphones were so sensitive to sounds that only soft fabrics could be used.





Musical-dance costumes

: ballad operas and comic operas. At this time stage costumes were often based on everyday-dress design.

and designers created fashionable costumes for singers and dancers.



Makeup Artists

by traditional materials, styles, and conventions, but is able to use a wide range of techniques to create innovative effects.




line, shape, proportion, and so on. Furniture and accessories work together in defining the style and feeling of a space. Accessories can enhance a space, add the finishing touches to a room, reflecting the personal taste and individuality of the user more than any other element. They can also be a powerful tool in establishing the design theme or expressing a cultural background. Interiors are enriched by the addition of both functional and decorative accessories.

Accessories work directly with the room’s furniture and should complement the selections. They should include items of personal value of the client or company. Some functional accessories, such as towel racks, door handles may be attached to the architectural background. Other practical accessories such as a mirror, a lamp, a clock may be moved from one place to another within the space.

Decorative accessories provide no other value than the pleasure derived from looking at them. Accessories are available in traditional or contemporary styles and may be handcrafted or machine-made, old or new. In residential design paintings, drawings, original prints, photographs, sculpture, and other types of art are usually selected personally by the client.


Fabric Care

Fabric Care for Manufacturers

There are certain permanent care labeling rules that all the manufacturers must follow. The rules are as follows:

The permanent care labeling rule requires the textile manufacturers to labels with appropriate care instructions, which are permanently legible.

The labels must be affixed in a manner that ensures permanent attachment for the length of the product’s useful life.

an implied rule that reasonable testing of the product is made before care instructions are established.

Fabric Care for Consumers

The care of fabrics used for home furnishings has always been a concern for consumers. Manufacturers generally assist the process by providing adequate labeling with proper care instructions.

The fabric care depends on the kind of fabric being used for a particular home furnishing product. Some of the general care tips are: brush and air the fabric frequently. Store in a clean place when not in use.

Mend the torn fabric immediately. Use appropriate cleaning method- washing or dry cleaning. Send the fabric for frequent laundering when the fabric is washable. Use proper method of laundering, depending on the type of fabric. Iron or press the fabric properly.







Ikebana achieved the status of an art form independent on its religious origins, though it continued to retain strong symbolic and philosophical overtones. The first teachers and students were priests and members of the nobility. However, as time passed, many different schools arose, styles changed, and Ikebana came to be practiced at all levels of Japanese society.

he same, but all three should never be different. Ikebana is said to be as easily codified as the practice of modern medicine.

, and Ikebana exhibitions are held periodically. According to the prescribed rules materials have to be combined in specific ways: a tall upright central stem has to be accompanied by two shorter stems.





History of cosmetics

was influenced by cosmetics.

In the western world, the advent of cosmetics was in the middle ages, although typically restricted to use within the upper classes.

publicly declared makeup improper, vulgar, and acceptable only for use by actors. By the middle of the 20th century, cosmetics were in widespread use in nearly all societies around the world.

(white lead), to cover the face during the Renaissance, and blindness caused by the mascara Lash Lure during the early 1900s.




Website layout

Website layout is different from other kind of layouts. One of the most evident distinguishing feature is navigation system. It has it’s own specifics and has to provide easy and natural feeling of buttons which does not make user spend few minutes before finding a button for certain action.

Human brains consist of two parts. One is more precise and technical kind and the other one is more humanitarian. Due to this fact different objects, perceived with our eyes, have different effects depending on the place they are observed. Advertising industry uses this effect to distinguish text and pictures and make both of them best memorized. It is proved that the picture on the right side and the text on the left side of the layout is better for perception. This is the visual concept.

But why most buttons on the website are located meanwhile at the upper left part? The idea is most people write from the left to the right side, from the top to the bottom which means from the upper left corner. This psychological habit dictates the placement of different elements in navigation. And the second explanation is the window can be rescaled. To make thing more stable and common for the user most pages are not changed and are aligned the same way.




generally invoked unsettled feelings in participants and tended to lean to the blue and green.



Photography types

Black-and-white photography displays the classic monochrome look, as well as the use of simulated optical filtering to enhance or diminish the rendering of certain light wavelengths.

enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) colour photography owing to the introduction of automated photo-printing equipment.

to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. The primary difference between digital and chemical photography is that analogue photography resists manipulation because it involves film, optics and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications. Nevertheless, according to survey results, more than two-thirds (68 percent) of professional photographers prefer the results of film to those of digital for certain applications including: film’s superiority in capturing more information on medium and large format films (48 percent); creating a traditional photographic look (48 percent); capturing shadow and highlighting details (45 percent); the wide exposure latitude of film (42 percent); and archival storage (38 percent).


Business cards

The cards, which carry information and contact details of any business, company or individual, are called business cards. This is one of the most simple and direct form of advertising yourself and your business. The business cards serve as an easy way to formally introduce you. Also, it is easy for the prospective customers to remember your name and contact you when the need arises.

in the seventeenth century. Only the royalty and aristocrats, to announce their visit, used these cards.

. Traders used business cards to promote their businesses and to provide maps or route-ways for customers to find their shops.

Nowadays, cards have evolved from black and white and color, to images imprinting and absorbing. A recent invention is the CD business card. They can hold a lot of audio and video data of the business. However, they are not used commonly.

A clear and brief business card is a mark of professionalism. It is vital for all businesses today.


















­tume before clothing?

­tect himself from the elements, while the Bible, ethnologists and psychologists have invoked psychological reasons: modesty in the case of the ancients, and the ideas of taboo, magical influence and the desire to please for the moderns.

Clearly we have insufficient information to assess the relative soundness of these theories.

­selves on special occasions.

­man’s uniform.

Costume denotes power, and as power is more often than not equated with wealth, costume came to be an expression of social caste and material prosperity. On this level, costume becomes subject to politics.

Military uniform also denotes rank, and is intended to intimidate, to protect the body and to express membership of a group: at the bottom of the scale, there are such compulsory costumes as convicts’ uniforms.

Contrary to widespread belief, it is probable that only latterly did primitive man’s costume express a desire to please. Clothing only gradually became a means of seduction by enhancing natural or adding artificial attractions.

Finally, costume can possess a religious significance that combines various elements: an actual or symbolic identification with a god, and the desire to express this in earthly life, the desire to increase the wearer’s authority. Sometimes religious associations may even lead to the wearing of garments for reasons of respect.

­ing that the two evolved at different rates.

­versified development of its costume?



­ing man.


known as the Palaeolithic period, and the shorter, more recent Neolithic period, which lasted for a few thousand years and was followed by the Bronze and Iron Ages.

did the temperature of the northern hemisphere fall, causing changes in fauna and flora.

­ges of their primitive clothing are to be found.


­ditions, by increasing technical skills, and perhaps by changes in the physical type of primitive man.

­lapping and mixture, influenced the evolution of prehistoric costume.





Sassanian towns such as Samarkand and Bokhara — great silk markets whose caravans came bearing the precious textile from the Far East or carrying supplies of finished cloth to the West — and probably other cities as well, possessed looms on which silk was woven in accordance with processes borrowed from China.


animal or human figures, sometimes enclosed in circles or rowels, and with a variety of other motifs.

­mens of which are generally preserved in European church treasuries, were used as shrouds and religious vestments. But above all they provided cloaks and mantles. The cloth used for ceremonial robes generally incorporated woven portraits of kings or signs symbolizing royal dignity.

(in squares).

After the Arab conquest, which threw the industry of the defeated Sassanians into temporary confusion, the Persian manufactures resumed their activity, to meet the customary sartorial needs of the country and satisfy a new Moslem clientele which, on this point at least, soon forgot the rulings of primitive Islamism.




England, but the variety of French costume materials was endless, corresponding to the increased individualism of women clients. The quality and production of cotton and wool also improved, more than twice as much cotton being used in 1848 than twenty years previously.

­vets, tulles, silks, etc., expanded considerably and gave costume an extraordinary variety of decoration, particularly in silks.

Under the Restoration and the July Monarchy, fashion had favoured silks brocaded with bouquets and woven edgings, flowered muslins, satins, moirés, striped, checked and printed stuffs.

that the textile industry embarked on its period of great activity.

or heavy satins, classic velvets or light barges. New fabrics were invented almost daily as the result of continual experiment; mixed weaves provided a wide repertory with constantly changing names.

We can trace the current which was to bring reasonably priced luxury within the reach of customers in town and country alike, and not merely the upper classes and the “cosseted bourgeoisie”.

­siderable extension of the foreign market.

We must recognize the personal contribution of Worth: his taste for soft, flowing lines requiring large quantities of cloth had much to do with the development of French industry under Napoleon III.

la mode”.

­cal improvements, economic expansion and the preponderance of French fashions — were all linked to a common factor, which in turn corresponds to a general characteristic of society: it was the ever-increasing rapidity of change.



Fibres, like fabrics, come in many sizes, shapes, and textures. Fibres are either natural or manufactured. A natural fibre is made from plants, trees, or animals. Today, there are four natural fibres commonly used: cotton, linen, wool, silk. Cotton, linen come from plants, and wool and silk come from animals.

the fibre is long and very thin, the fabric produced is especially fine. If the fibre is shorter and thicker, a sturdier fabric is produced. Cotton is used for everything, from baby’s diapers to heavy denim jeans.

Cotton is soft, absorbent, and comfortable to wear in hot weather. Because cotton takes dyes and prints very well, it is often colour-treated. Cotton is often combined with other fabrics. Its one disadvantage is that it wrinkles easily. Fabric manufacturers have learned to treat cotton or to blend it with other fabrics in order to reduce wrinkling.

Linen grows inside the walls of flax plants, which look like tall, slender reeds. It is a cool, strong, and absorbent fabric, much like cotton but not quite as soft.

Linen wrinkles even more easily than cotton. To reduce the amount of wrinkling, it can be treated chemically.

Wool is the most commonly used animal fibre. It comes from sheep, which are raised throughout the world. The hair, or fleece, is shaved or trimmed from the animal and spun into various kinds of fibres. Wool is warmer than either linen or cotton and it resists wrinkling. Wool takes readily to dyes, even though it is water-resistant. When soaked in water, wool fibres weaken and the fabric may shrink. For this reason, wool is often combined with other fibres to prevent shrinking in water. In this way, it can be laundered.

from silkworms. The silk fibre is often called a filament. This is a very long, fine thread that is released from the mouth of the silkworm as the worm spins a cocoon around itself. The filament hardens when air touches it.

Silk fibres have a natural shine. They are soft and smooth, but also very strong fibres. Silk takes dyes very well. It also wrinkles, but modern fabric manufacturers have found ways to lessen this somewhat. Like wool, silk requires some special care. It is best cared for by hand washing or by dry cleaning.

For thousands of years, people had no choice but to use natural fibres. Then, a major breakthrough in the textile industry came about. People learned to make fibres themselves. Manufactured fibres are made by chemically changing cellulose or combining two or more chemical compounds and spinning the solutions into fibres.

, being the almost exact equivalent of the Scottish and Irish flax.

Hemp and linen fibres were manufactured in much the same way, and a foul, disagreeable and antisocial business it was too, second only to tanning and the beavering of wood (fermenting it to produce the dye) as a provocation for early anti-pollution laws.

(“split”) to remove the less useful short fibres, which went to make tow.

in most European countries. Its name came to us from the Arabic, which in English became cotton. The early use of cotton was as a stuffing, both of clothing and of upholstery.

After the harvested cotton has been dried and much of the trash removed, the fibres are separated from their seeds in a process called “ginning”. Following separation the cotton is pressed into bales and wrapped for protection. The next step is “classing” to decide the quality of cotton. The “classer” judges cotton samples by hand and by eye. The value depends on the length of fibre, its colour, its feel and the amount of remaining trash.

machine that removes short fibres before spinning. This gives a much stronger, cleaner and smoother yarn. The popularity of cotton yarn and fabric is great and growing.



Textile fibres are the raw materials of the yarns into which they are spun. There are two configurations of fibres: staple fibres and filament fibres.

are of comparatively short length – for example, cotton and wool fibres, which require spinning and twisting together in order to produce a satisfactory length of yarn of suitable strength.

is a fibre of indefinite length – for example silk, which requires combining with other filaments, usually with some twist, in order to produce a yarn of sufficient bulk.

with the fibre-forming substance produced from chemicals derived from such sources as coal and oil, and then made into such fibres as nylon and polyester.

requires a relatively fine, smooth, strong yarn with good elastic recovery properties. The worsted system has proved particularly suitable for spinning yarns used for knitwear, outerwear and socks, and the combed cotton system for underwear, sportswear and socks.


to support the elastic properties of knitted garments. The period from the mid-1960s to 1973 is often regarded by knitters as a ‘golden age’ because fashionable demand for textiles composed of synthetic fibres reached a peak during that period.



Anything visual can be a source of inspiration for a design, from a John Galliano garment to a plate of baked beans. Designers are mainly interested in the visual appearance and connotations of the objects, and seldom in the conceptual integrity of the design. Different sources of inspiration can be combined in one garment: a designer garment, a Roman ornament, a piece of tree bark.

Designers look for repeat patterns, ornaments, and motifs. Other textiles are often used as sources of inspiration for patterns. They provide rich sources of ornamental patterns, for example in embroideries, rugs, or tie patterns. Knitwear is often coordinated with other textile ranges. Knitwear designs are often based on textile prints in the same collection. All other design objects with patterns, such as tiles and mosaics, serve as sources of inspiration. Designers frequently use historic designs, such as William Morris wallpaper, and fine art can also provide a rich source. Everyday objects like sweet wrappers or buildings are also useful.

Many themes take their inspiration from nature. Animals, plants and other natural objects, as well as natural phenomena such as thunderstorms or sunsets inspire designers. Designers collect portable physical objects like leaves or shells, use photographs or work from memory. Designers never stop looking for sources of inspiration. When they see something suitable they turn it into a design.

Knitwear involves the creation of the fabric, as in textile design, and the creation of the shape, as in fashion design. These two elements need to be coordinated. The knitwear design and sampling process is highly complex, as there is a subtle interaction between the technical features of knitted fabric and its visual appearance.

and select a yarn colour palette. From the beginning many designers think in terms of concrete garments. The result of the research process is a skeletal concept of their new collection, the design framework.

looking through yarn catalogues. They look at the feel and appearance of the yarn. Head designers often return from a yarn show with a fairly clear idea of their collection. Important fundamental design decisions are made at this very early stage, for example what types of yarns to pursue. Cones of yarn and yarn sale swatches get transformed instantly into garments in the inner eye of many designers. The garments in catwalk shows and fashion photographs provide a broader context for knitwear and show trends independently of the material the garment is made of. By being inundated with designs at a show designers can spot recurring features and form an opinion of the strong characteristics of that season. Individual garments, studied or purchased on shopping trips, illustrate important features and designers learn how they can be manufactured.

General design research continues with the development of individual themes, a topic tying together a range of garments. The themes are derived from the forecasting materials. The themes are expressed by sketches of garments, a colour palette and some topical images. When looking at them many designers think in terms of concrete garments. Not all themes are suitable to knitwear or to companies’ own styles and needs.

Based on forecasting materials from forecasting bureaus, writeups about them in press and their own overall understanding of the context of a new season, designers develop about four or five themes for their own collections. The space of possible designs is severely limited by the selection of themes.

The company themes are expressed in theme boards with sketches and magazine clippings. Topical photographs can set a context, such a photograph of a Scottish heather landscape for a tweed collection.



Colour is one of the five ingredients of fashion; the other four are style, silhouette, texture and pattern. Ornamentation for design purposes may be introduced at the fibre, yarn, or dyeing and finishing stage and knitting stage. Apart from different colours, it may take the form of sculptured or surface interest. In fibre form it may include a variation of fibre diameter, length, cross-section, dye uptake, shrinkage, or elastic properties. In yarn form it can include fancy twist and novelty yarns, as well as the combined use of yarns produced by different spinning or texturing processes.

The dyeing process may occur at any point in manufacturing from fibre to finished article. The finishing process may also utilise heat or chemically-derived shaping. Finally, printing can introduce colour designs onto plain colour surfaces, whilst embroidery stitching may provide relief designs in one or more colours.

The finishing process can completely transform the appearance of a relatively uninteresting structure, either as an overall effect or on selected parts. The knitting of stitch designs always involves a loss of productivity compared with the knitting of plain, non-patterned structures. Machine speeds are lower, less feeds can generally be accommodated, efficiency is less, design changes are time-consuming and dependent upon technique and machine type and, in many cases, more than one feeder course is required to knit each pattern row.

, and individual jacquard stitch selection.

provides the facility to select one from several coloured yarns at a machine feed position. Even without striping selection facilities, by careful arrangement of the packages of coloured yarns on a large diameter, multi-feeder machine, an elaborate sequence of stripes repeated at each machine revolution, is obtained.

is a special method of producing designs in knitted loops that form self-contained areas of pure colours. Unequalled colour definition is achieved, with a large number of colours and no adverse effect on the physical properties of the structure such as reduction of extensibility.

is widely used for single jersey, plush, float and interlock fleecy. However, with the exception of embroidery motif plating, the use of coloured yarns to produce plated designs has diminished in weft knitting. Plating requires great precision and offers limited colour choice compared with the improved facilities offered by jacquard knit and misses needle selection of coloured stitches.

In reverse plating, two yarns (usually of contrasting colour) change their positions at the needle head by controlled movement of specially-shaped sinkers or yarn feed guides.

sectional plating (straight bar frames), the ground yarn knits continuously across the full width whilst the plating carrier tubes, set lower into the needles, supply yarn in a reciprocating movement to a particular group of needles, so that the colour shows on the face.

is the most versatile and widely-employed method of knitting designs in colour, or different types of stitches in self-colour. It is based on the relative positioning of an element during a knitting cycle determining which stitch, from a choice of two or more, is produced in its corresponding wale at a particular feeder course of a machine revolution or traverse.





whole constellation of couturiers shared a well-earned renown after the last years of the nineteenth century.

Their names have come down to us for various reasons, but we shall limit ourselves to mentioning the few who transformed costume between 1890 and 1914.

­tury, of the “walking suit” whose skirt, reaching just to the ground, was convenient for outdoor pursuits; and lastly, the ‘tailored coat’, inspired by the austere cut of men’s coats. He also successfully designed theatrical costumes for celebrated actresses.

as well as prominent actresses.

quins barefoot and ‘in their skin’, which meant without corsets.

From 1918 to 1939 she was one of the great names of Parisian couture, not only for her accomplished techniques and her faultless handling of fabrics, but also because of her inborn sense of how to enhance her client’s femininity and the harmony and balance of her creations.

, which he constantly varied and perfected.



­talism which showed itself in vibrant tones and bold contrasts. It sheathed women’s bodies in narrow, soft tubes and crowned lacquered hair with turbans and aigrettes. Full-pleated capes wrapped women in the evening. The sinuous silhouette of these elongated creatures seemed to move in a perpetual tango, like the symbol of a moving line.

of the 1900 period. Textiles were soft and clinging, adorned with brilliant embroideries and transparent lace. This style remained the favourite of women frightened by boldness, who were happier to accept new fashions when they did not break with the past.

These two tendencies existed side by side, and despite their opposition, for those who knew them they still remain the symbol of the elegance of a lost world.


, which brought new life to the manufacturing of undergarments and stockings and were a particularly welcome development when tights came into vogue.

used Pyrenean wool blankets and mattress ticking, while several others used terrycloth in their designs.

animal skins that were cheaper than the original.

continues to use the most unusual and varied materials in his embroidered work.

­signed golden metal armour plates to be worn with crêpe skirts.

, and, more recently, Hubert de Givenchy.

­ditional methods of lining.



designers, whose original customers had grown older, became the most significant force in the fashion world.

­ly ten times more expensive than even the best ready-to-wear styles.

­ate a line of casual layered knit and crocheted separates that were reversible.

­ceptional. Since 1983, Lagerfeld has been at the helm of Chanel haute couture.

­lic, designers were no longer the poor relatives of the couturiers, but admired partners in the game of fashion.

­sented the taste of the times, came to inspire an entire style of dress, the primary proponent of which was the British designer Laura Ashley, who created a line of products loosely derived from Kate Greenaway.

design. From 1974 Anne-Marie Beretta showed collections of great daring and originality. She masterfully rendered great wool coats in natural tones, squarely cut clothes with leather piping, prints inspired by contemporary painting, and white dresses that fell with a noble simplicity.

Claude Montana signed his first collection in 1977 and immediately proved himself to be one of the most gifted designers of his generation, combining a technical assurance with an exceptional intuition regarding colour and form. His favourite material is leather, which he dares to combine, for example, with lace. Even his most eccentric designs possess an undeniably aesthetic quality.

­ate pieces that are produced in very limited series and will never become factory-made.

firm closed in 1981, but there still exists in France a certain number of artisans who work in textiles and create clothing of all sorts.

, where small firms that create one-of-a-kind or limited-series clothes are multiplying.

along with his manufactured clothes makes hand-painted unique dresses and jackets woven with rare materials, creations that remain the prized possession of a single client.

­ers of the future.




, the Federation of Women’s Ready-to-Wear presents its lines.

and sell them, either directly or through licensed distributors, in any country where they are appreciated.

Women’s hats, despite designers’ efforts to keep them in fashion, were relegated to weddings and solemn functions. Gloves worn for anything but sports and cold weather disappeared. Ties became the symbol of constraining office wear and were increasingly abandoned in leisure hours. Men’s hats gave way to berets, caps, and motorcycle helmets.



From the crude garments of prehistory to the studied harmony of ancient costumes, from the solemn dress of the Middle Ages to the fanciful and refined garb of modern times, human beings over the millennia have had at their disposal every possible form, colour, and fabric.

In the vast historical panorama available for study, three major periods of fashion emerge: in the first, clothing was impersonal and generic; in the second, personal and national; and in the third, impersonal and international.

World War II upset not just old habits and traditions but the very foundations of civilization; the evolution that took place after the first war was transformed after the second into a kind of revolution.

Like so many facets of culture, fashion today has a split purpose: first, to accommodate human character, taking into account the traditions, sensibilities, desires, dreams of the people; and second, to adapt modern society’s impersonal utilitarianism and the cold uniform nature of technology. Will fashion’s artist-creators give way to a new breed of garment engineers? Most likely, the former will have to abandon some of their dreams but while the creative power of the designer may diminish, it is still individuals, with their innate need for balance, who will determine their own fashion choices.

n vanity.

conditions and unimaginable destinies, many of which become aspects of our present reality: ways of thinking this are ambitious but often unfeasible; increasingly abstract an intellectual conceptions of art and architecture; a constant growing dominance of science and technology; a staggering materialism in ways of life; an inordinately reduced sense space; and more and more frantic pace to daily existence.

It has become impossible to make a distinction between styles that will last, trends that will grow, and the passing fancies of a season.


­plines are generally called stylists.

­ed upon “the relation between clothes and architecture”, stating that “the principle of clothing always and in all nations exerts enormous influence on architectural and art styles”.

critical situation as it enters the post-modernistic era and this can be seen clearly at international meetings of designers.

­ucts on the market.

Fashion design and the textile industry have their own independent way of development. It has to be admitted and stressed that the functionalistic approach exerted a positive influence on textiles and clothes and resulted in its reformation in accordance with social changes. However, the practical rationality of designed clothing has never been able to eliminate altogether its aesthetic aspects. It is also obvious that functionalism was most apparent in the fields of working clothes’ design, sportswear, and daily clothing, and more in men’s than in women’s fashion.


­sponding with the needs, likes, and dislikes of individual buyers and users.




style categories are used to help guide the client. They are formal traditional, formal modern, informal provincial, informal modern, and eclectic.

osing their character.

, Bauhaus, and International Style furniture may be very formal and sophisticated, depending on supportive elements. Modern Oriental is often used in a formal manner.

Historically, provincial furniture was produced in rural areas. Provincial furniture used native woods and techniques that imitated finer, more expensive finishes. The provincial interior is generally handcrafted, simple, and casual, appearing unpretentious. The look is cloistered, comfortable, and rustic; it may incorporate furniture from a number of countries as long as designs are rooted in the past and have an aura of charm and informality. Styles most commonly employed that provide this feeling are Colonial American, Medieval English (as well as simplified Georgian), French provincial, and Spanish. Also appropriate are Dutch, Swedish, and German furnishings.

, Bauhaus and International Style, Post-Modern, and Italian can generally be designed in either an informal or formal manner, depending on the supportive treatment.

element that ties the pieces together. For example, to achieve the provincial look, informality may be the key, and all country furniture, regardless of the source, is generally compatible. For a formal traditional look, dignity may be the key, and refined pieces of almost any style can be combined with pleasant results. The eclectic look often allows for more daring and imaginative interiors.





tion of the space.

line, colour, form, lighting, and texture to create a sense of balance and harmony.

­date a lamp that produces adequate lighting with no glare.

­ronment that not only meets the client’s needs, but is also a safe environment in which to live. Life safety and building codes must be followed. No matter how wonderful an interior space looks if the users cannot efficiently complete the activities and functions required in the space, the design has failed.



The great 19th-century writer and critic John Ruskin said, “Colour is the most sacred element in all visual things”. Designers agree that colour is the most vital and expressive of the elements of design. Therefore, it is essential that designers have a thorough knowledge of the properties and character of various colours, colour theory, colour schemes, colour associations, and other considerations of colour for use in planning both residential and commercial interiors.

do the same thing. Light affects the colours we see. In bright afternoon sun, colours are crisp and clear. But in evening sunsets, red and orange tones cast a warm glow. In candlelight or moonlight, colours are muted and dulled. It is essential when studying about colour first to understand that the source of colour is light.

of an object.

It is important to realize that without light, colour would not exist.

all the wavelengths except those that are seen. For instance, a teal rug subtracts all the wavelengths except for some of the blue and green wavelengths, which it reflects back. A black tiled wall subtracts all the wavelengths.

, artificially created or a combination of both.






Do you know what colour makes you feel happier? If you can select a dress that complements your natural colouring, then you will have no difficulty in selecting the key colour for the interior of your home.

Choose a colour that you want to live with and it will be the key colour throughout your home. This is what interior designers call colour continuity. In a single room or all over the house, this repeating of a colour brings unity.

Colour continuity is important. When one room opens into another, the colours may change places in the second room but a colour continuity must be preserved. For instance, the blue of the wall in one room may drop to the floor or rise to the ceiling in the other room. But, there is a reason to break the sequence; the major colour scheme should be carried through to the adjacent room.

Colour is a wonderful tool in interior design. It can camouflage bad architectural detail; it can emphasize the beauty of good architectural detail. Colour can make a room appear smaller. It can make a room appear larger.

you cannot use a colour high on the wall without bringing it down into the room. Remember this when you are contemplating a contrasting valance at your window. The valance will turn out to be an eye-catching, objectionable room feature if you do not make it a part of the room by covering some pieces of furniture, not necessarily in the same fabric, but in the same colour.

And this brings us to say that colour used intelligently can do more to make a room both comfortable and beautiful than any other factor, almost as much as all other factors used in its design.

visual texture. Textures that you can feel as well as see are introduced in all of the textiles. Small-scale, unobtrusive patterns in draperies, pillows, and upholstery add interest and variety. Paintings, sculptures, books and magazines, accessories, lighting fixtures and the occupants’ clothes bring additional contrast.

This room is comfortable and attractive. Why? Because it was developed to fill basic human needs. No matter what the art form may be – a modest home or a magnificent mansion, a kitchen chair or a community mural – human needs and interests deserve first consideration.



­viduality of the user more than any other element.

­pressing a cultural background. Interiors are enriched by the addition of both functional and decorative accessories.

­other within the space.

sideration when selecting functional accessories. For example, if lighting is required beside a lounge chair in a living room, choose an appropriate lamp that will meet the needs of the user.


tures. Bookshelves can go in almost any room, require little space, and create a warm, friendly atmosphere. Children need bookshelves in their rooms at a height they can easily reach. Other bedrooms can accommodate shelves where space permits usually close to the bed for night time reading. Kitchens need handy shelves for reference books and cookbooks. Conference rooms benefit from shelves used to display company memorabilia, awards, and reference books.

Additionally, books can add a decorative quality to a room with their textures, colours, and shapes. They also mix well with other accessories; for example, a few books flanked with interesting bookends, next to a plant and a small sculpture, or placed on a coffee table with other items add interest to a room.

­rors are a helpful tool for the interior designer; they can add beauty, multiply space, conceal unattractive structural features, distribute and double light, brighten dark areas, and bring life into an otherwise drab room. Mirrors have steadily increased in popularity and now play an indispensable role in all styles of interiors.

­munities the chime of a clock tower helps to define the “sense of place”.

of a room by replacing a door, control the flow of air and lie direction of light, camouflage an old-fashioned radiator or conditioning unit, or conceal storage. A decorative screen can give an architectural quality to a room, enhance the room’s decor, provide a backdrop for a furniture grouping, substitute for side drapery, or serve as the room’s focal point.

­lar period.



When determining what accessories are suitable for a particular space, consider a wide range of possibilities. Reviewing an outline of numerous items often sparks an idea of the accessory or accessories that tie an entire grouping together.

­marily as a point of interest. The principles and elements of design must always be used. For example, the item must be suitable in texture, colour, and form to the style, background, and other accessories and furnishings in the room. The item should be in scale with the other furnishings and the space allocated. The accessory should help to bring balance and harmony to the room.

­mal French panelled wall.

often chosen for schools, offices, hospitals, libraries, hotels, retail stores restaurants, and other public settings. Also, accessories that relate to the function of the facility itself can add character to the space. For example, prints in a restaurant might pertain to the history or theme of the establishment. All accessories selected for the commercial setting should enhance the environment and humanize the space.

Textiles enhance both residential and commercial interiors. They are probably more versatile than any other element used for interior design. Textiles are pliable: they can be sewn, draped, bent, folded, wrapped, pleated, gathered, and stretched. Textiles are used in every room for upholstery, window treatments, slipcovers, pillows and cushions, bedspreads, blankets and throws, towels, table linens, wall coverings, ceiling coverings, lamp shades, and trim.

­ture, and bring comfort, warmth, and softness to homes and public places.



­ten used interchangeably in the profession, and are defined as follows:

are the raw materials, either natural or synthetic, that produce yarns and fabrics.

to form the strands that produce fabrics.

­ufacturers have found that by blending certain fibres, the most desirable qualities of each can be incorporated into a single fabric.

is the result of twisting two or more single yarns together before weaving to give added strength or create a surface effect.

Fibres that come from nature fall into four classifications: protein, cellulose, metallic, and mineral.

Wool and silk are the most important protein, or animal, fibres.

­holstery, carpeting, draperies, and wall coverings.

­tries around the world. The advantages of silk are that it is a beautiful, long fibre, soft, luxurious, and surpassed in strength only by nylon. It takes and holds dye well and drapes beautifully. One disadvantage is that the sun’s rays break down the fibre, requiring it to be protected from direct sunlight. Silk also is susceptible to deterioration by soil, beetles, and moisture. It is expensive as well.

Raw silk, or uncultivated silk, is a shorter and coarser fibre with less lustre. Both types of silk fibres are used for draperies, some upholstery applications (when backed), wall coverings, trim, and fabric art.

­duce sheer or heavyweight fabrics. Its flexibility allows it to be adapted for such functions as upholstery, floor coverings, and window treatments. Its disadvantages are that it is not as durable as other fibres, and it wrinkles. It can mildew and fade. The cost of cotton varies according to the quality of the fibre, wave, and finish.



­temporary designs. Following is a discussion of the principal decorative uses of fabrics.

­orative needs of the room in which it is used.

­ging and are commonly used in commercial environments.

are particularly resistant to sunlight.

­ery treatment.

­ceals or emphasizes the furniture design, and adds to or sets the theme or mood of the room.

­vas: and lightweight fabrics such as chintz, linen (linen, originally Persian homespun).

1. What type of fibre and weave are employed? An upholstered fabric, for example, will last longer if the warp and fill are the same weight and tightly woven.

2. Is the fabric attractive and comfortable to the touch?

3. Is a patterned or plain fabric preferred? Fabrics with small overall patterns tend to show soil less than solid colours. If a pattern is chosen, is it in scale with the furniture and the room, and does it support the style?

4. Is the fabric suitable for its intended function? For example, will the upholstery be used by active children in a family room, or by a single professional in a seldom-visited area?

5. Is the fabric the best quality the budget will allow, considering long-term wear and maintenance? It is usually inadvisable to buy expensive fabric for cheap furniture and fabric of lesser quality for fine furniture.

­ceptible to marks, holes, and tears. Leather is also used for wall coverings and floor tiles.

­mosphere. Usually, slipcovers are used only in residential settings.

that can be purchased with several changes of slipcovers to help dress the furniture for seasonal changes.

Fabrics can be used on walls to add beauty or to solve a decorative problem. The fabric should have a tight weave with firm body. Canvas, burlap, ticking, heavy cotton or linen, velveteen, and damask are often used for wall coverings. In commercial environments, flammability codes for wall coverings must be followed.



Although not required, after a design project is complete, interior designers can offer a client a valuable service by providing manufacturers’ manuals, booklets, and other care instructions.

The designer also may recommend added protection from the sun for certain fabrics. Many fabrics are susceptible to sun damage, and glass can multiply the destructive element in the sun’s rays. Protective coatings can be applied to glass to prevent harmful UV rays from entering the interior.

Textiles enhance both residential and commercial interiors. They are probably more versatile than any other element used for interior design. Textiles also may be used as accents in a room. Trims, fringes, and braids add character and distinction to an interior. Textiles can be used for accent throw pillows, adding interest as well as comfort and continuity to a room. For instance, a particular silk fabric may not be suitable to cover an entire sofa, but may function well on accent pillows.

One of the primary purposes of textiles, however, is to humanize living spaces. Textiles provide a transition between architecture and furniture, and bring comfort, warmth, and softness to homes and public places.

Although an unexpected combination of materials may create a feeling of great interest and charm, some general principles will be helpful to the inexperienced designer when combining patterns, textures, and colours. The selection of any combination of textiles must coincide with the desired feeling or mood in the room. For example, a formal contemporary studio apartment would have crisp shiny fabrics, possibly with leather accents; a woven flame stitch upholstery would appear out of place.

This method is fairly safe because the basic colours of the scheme are already coordinated. However, without careful consideration this approach can become static or uninteresting.

Select a textile scheme appropriate for the chosen style. For example, a Victorian-style room would include deep purples, mauves, greens, and reds in rich brocades, velvets, and heavy tapestries.




is a determining factor. Just as the exterior and interior architecture should be consistent, the furnishings of a room must also be in harmony with the background. For example, melded plastic chairs do not belong to formal in the 18th-century. A surprising juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated objects may occasionally add relief, but this practice requires sophisticated judgment.

the furniture should reflect the same feeling.

­pealing result.


can contribute to the room’s total harmony: planning a hard or soft line treatment suitable for the theme and style is essential. For example, ruffled cottage curtains are out of place in an Oriental-style house, and elegant damask swags are inappropriate for a country cottage.

­lowed slavishly but a general feeling of unity should be maintained throughout. This allows the designer to combine good design from many periods with one theme dominating.

Within this overall theme, an occasional surprise to give variety and interest can provide charm and individuality.


­ments and principles, including colour and light help the designer create an interior that is physically and psychologically comfortable, as well as uniquely attractive.



handling, storing, and using of the many things brought into the home. Distinguished packages are potent selling factors – in stores, in newspaper and magazine advertisements, and on television.

­tion: it will be lined up with a number of identical packages and it will be adjacent to competing products.

­ficiently distinctive to capture attention, arouse the buying urge, and be easily remembered.

­tangles which form a distinctive, quickly recognizable pattern. To insure identification from any angle, the brand name is clearly printed on each side. Used since 1938 with only minor changes, this package design has had an unusually long life.

Some products lend themselves to transparent packaging, an ideal solution because the purchaser can see what he is buying and yet know that it has been protected.

The bottle the appetite-arousing colour of the beverage, makes the brand-name clear, and is shaped to stay in your hand.

Little more could be asked for hairbrushes and soft beverages but much more is asked for such tempting luxuries as perfumes.



, thousands of years ago, who identified his pots with a distinguishing trademark.

Creating effective advertising is a long process in which many experts participate. The first step is getting needed facts through research. Marketing research seeks specific facts about potential consumers and about appropriateness of the possible advertising mediums (newspapers, magazines, radio, television, etc.). Some of the questions to be answered are: Who uses this product and why? How does the product come to the attention of the consumer and how does it get into his hands? What factors, positive and negative, determine a person’s choice? Although no one will ever have all the answers in final form, marketing research helps advertisers to gear their advertisements to the potential consumer.

be held up under repetition. Colour catches the eye, and this is a very fundamental point. It should centre the readers thoughts and feelings on the product, service, or idea for which the advertisement was created. It fails if it merely attracts attention to itself.

Anything that is external or inapplicable, or that divert interest from the basic idea weakens an advertisement just as it would weaken a painting, statue, or building. It is somewhat easier, though, to weed out the unnecessary in advertising than in most other art expressions because the aim is single and simple to sell. To succeed it must capture attention, arouse and hold interest, make a lasting impression and lead to the action deemed desirable by the man.




Graphic designers begin a design project by talking to the client or supervisor. Next, they use a variety of print, electronic, film media to create art and prepare sketches or images according to the client’s needs. If their work is a part of a larger project they will consider the project’s goals. Graphic designers then draw a sample of the proposed layout or create the layout on a computer screen. They present their sketches and layout to the art director or client for approval. Together, they suggest improvements and make changes as necessary.

very defined financial and design limits to produce quality material. Salesman skills are very important if you want to see your design. When projects are underway, a graphic designer expected to work long hours brainstorming. Graphic designers must have talent and an understanding of the business world, including issues of finance and production, and should be familiar with computer technology. Basic professional coursework should include design, drawing, computer artwork, and specific knowledge relating to any area of specialization.

Graphics, which were the original focus of image consultants, are concerned with the overall visual presentation of the organization. The graphics system should dictate the design style of the company’s literature, signs and stationery. It involves coordinating the style of the typeface, photography, illustrations, layout, and colouring in all the company’s graphics. The logo is the heart of the corporate design system.

Unlike nomenclature, logos can be changed subtly over time to reflect the evolving corporate identity.

creates a pleasing layout from text and graphics. That design might be a brochure, a logo, a Web page, or an advertisement. The list doesn’t end there either. Here are some definitions:

effective message in the design of logos, graphics, brochures, newsletters, posters, signs, and any other type of visual communication. Today’s graphic designers often use desktop publishing software and techniques to achieve their goals.

Some designers don’t work with text at all, such as an illustrator or a digital artist. And some designers do it all: print, Web, layout, and illustration.




‘s point that the logo cannot survive unless it is designed with the maximum simplicity and control. He more than anyone else made the profession reputable.



appealing and commercially successful. Commercial success is the touchstone of achievement in design, although designers in different cultures have often taken different views as to how the achievement is measured or the success validated.

Commercial photographic images are a major ingredient of our visual life, assimilated from magazines, hoardings and such contexts as brochures, catalogues, calendars, packaging and point-of-sale promotional material. Commercial photography thrives as a means of creating highly polished images of a stylized, glamorized and idealized view of the world in order to sell a product or a service.

The major category of commercial photography is advertising in its countless guises, including product photography and photo-illustration, fashion, beauty and certain categories of photography which are neither reportage nor aspire to be fine art, yet which can be fascinating social documents of considerable aesthetic quality.


, James Baes and others.

glamorized images of women and give a heightened visual appeal to the products which are economic mainstay of our society.

, often uses soft focus for a dreamy and romantic look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed “The Group” to advocate “straight photography”; the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else.



experiments in colour could not fix the photograph and prevent the colour from fading. The first permanent colour photo was taken in 1861 by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell.

One of the early methods of taking colour photos was to use three cameras. Each camera would had a colour filter in front of the lens. This technique provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a colour image in a darkroom or a processing plant.

technology. Instant colour film was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

(non-digital) colour photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment.

, which indicates the apparent vividness or purity of a hue. The spectrum shows perfectly saturated hues. The narrower the band of wavelengths is, the purer the colour is. Strong, vivid hues are referred to as saturated colours. Almost all colours we see are desaturated by a wider band of other wavelengths. When different wavelengths are present, the hue is said to be weaker or desaturated.

Learning these three basic concepts will help the photographer to translate better what has been seen by the eye into what has been recorded by the photographic materials. It also provides a common vocabulary of terms that we can employ in accurately discussing our work with others.



You will need to take great thought in choosing the colour that you want for the logo design to identify your business. Once a colour is owned, it will be forever associated with you and your company. It can be just as important to your identity as your logo design. If a shape provides a symbol, you should know that colour does the same.

It is important to understand the psychology of colour choices. A good colour selection can help make an identity system more effective, while a poor colour selection can actually damage your company’s image in the eyes of the public.

Colours evoke feelings and represent ideas. In logo design, knowledgeable and appropriate use of colour is critical.

, green is typically associated with jealousy. People from tropical countries respond most favourably to warm colours; people from northern climates prefer the cooler colours.

troubled state. Of course, not all colours mean the same things to all people. Yellow may sometimes mean cheap, green may mean money or greed, Black may mean elegance or death.

people — the overall difference being in the shade or tones used. Psychologically, and on its own, white is the colour of cleanliness and purity, truthfulness, youth, simplicity and innocence. White has become a very popular background colour in web sites, because it offers the best readability on screen, and is a non-colour. Market researchers have also determined that colour affects shopping habits. Impulse shoppers respond best to red-orange, black and royal blue. Shoppers who plan and stick to budgets respond best to pink, teal, light blue and navy. Traditionalists respond to pastels — pink, rose, sky blue. Cool colours have passive, calming qualities that aid concentration and can create a mood of peacefulness and tranquillity, reducing tension. Cool shades include Violets and Blues.



be employed.

r, detail, feeling, and mood needed to express and convey the situation to the audience.

Another way of controlling light is the aperture. It is located inside the lens and is an adjustable opening that controls the amount of light that goes through the lens and strikes the film. A large opening allows a lot of light to reach the film. A small opening allows very little light to reach the film. The aperture is sometimes called the lens opening, diaphragm, iris, or f-stop. The aperture has various settings called f-stops. F-stop generally ranges from a setting of f/1.4 or f/1.8 the largest opening, to f/16 or f/22 the smaller opening. F-stops are set by a movable ring on the lens barrel. Each time the aperture is made smaller, for example, from f/2.8 to f/4, the amount of light is cut exactly in half.

As the aperture is made smaller from f/4 to f/5.6, the light is again cut in half.

Each time the aperture moves, for example, from f/5.6 to f/4, the light is doubled. This is true each time the aperture moves, from f/11 to f/8, from f/8 to f/5.6 and so on. Each time the number changes, the light is either doubled or halved.




wide. Most 35mm film is sold in length of 12, 20, 24, and 36 exposures.

. They can be used under available room light without a flash. Fast films are the most popular black and white films because they can easily be used in either low or bright lighting conditions. A main disadvantage is that fast films are grainy especially when greatly enlarged.

enlarged prints. However, medium speed films require more light than fast films and must be used outside or inside with lights or a flash.

Slow speed films are usually used outside under bright sunlight or inside with extra lights or a flash.

be made from these slides. Slides are usually projected and many times are made into slide shows.

or film that ends in the word “colour” is for colour prints.

Colour film also comes in either daylight or tungsten film. Each type has special colour dyes to match for sunlight (daylight) or artificial light (tungsten).

Selecting a film for your needs comes from experimenting with different types. Each type has its unique grain, contrast, and colour qualities.

However, there are guidelines that will help you select the right film: film speed and grain.

400. Remember, these films are very sensitive and will appear a bit grainy if enlarged.

100. These films have fine grain.

There are many other brands and types of film. Don’t be afraid to experiment and find out which you like best. When you buy film check the expiration date. It’s important to use fresh dated film and to have your film processed as soon as possible after taking your photos. Also keep your film in cool, dry place away from dust. Expensive heat or moisture can damage the emulsion and affect the colour.

If you plan on shorting film for any long period of time, it is a good idea to keep it in the plastic container and stored in the refrigerator. The cool temperature will keep the film from aging and will help it last longer.



One of the first questions women ask is “What colour should my hair be?” It’s a good question, since many women who dye or frost their hair are doing it in the wrong shade. Women want to colour their hair for one of three reasons: to stay blonde, to cover gray, to give themselves a boost.

Nature usually does it right, and for many, doing nothing is best. But sometimes it is appropriate to colour hair, and the secret to success is knowing what colour to select. Hair colour is simple once you know your season. To look terrific, any dye colour, frosting, or highlighting should go with your colouring, not against it.

golden or reddish tones.

Most Winters have brown to black hair. Their hair is beautiful on them just the way it is. A Winter should never frost her hair, nor should she bleach it blonde or add red. It can look striking if it is totally white, but achieving that look through the bottle is usually less than exciting because it looks artificial. Best to wait until it turns white all by itself. A Winter can use natural or black henna, but never red. If you are a Winter, do not let your hairdresser talk you into highlighting, painting, or frosting. Your hair is likely to turn red if stripped with peroxide, and frosting succeeds only in making you look old.

tone. Remember that as you age, your skin fades and it is wise to let your hair lighten also. The rare blonde Winter usually stays blonde and doesn’t need to do a thing. Winter, be happy with yourself as nature made you. Spend your money on diamonds and leave your hair alone.

attractively and may wish to leave the gray for a naturally frosted look. If she wishes to cover it, she must use ash blonde or brown tones. A few Summers have a reddish cast to their hair due to the intense red pigments in their skin. (Summer men often have ash blonde hair and red beards!) These Summers can use a gray shampoo to tone down the red if they wish or leave the highlights as they are.

Some Summers need contrast but want to be blonde. Ash blonde comes in many degrees, so don’t forget the possibility of dark ash blonde for facial contrast, with pale ash streaks or frosting for “glamour.”

painted effect, which looks like natural colouring from the sun.

Many Springs have warm blonde or brown hair that has darkened to a golden shade and looks beautiful just the way it is. If a blonde Spring wants to stay blonde, she should use flaxen or golden blonde hair colouring, never ash. She also should stay away from frosting, though she can use the painted or highlighting effect. A Spring is the youthful type and should not use any hair colour that looks too sophisticated or appears gray. Her hair does not gray attractively, and she is wise to colour it during its “coming in” years. But once it is completely gray, or white, its warm colour is flattering. To cover gray, Spring can use auburn, golden brown, or golden blonde hair colouring. Some Springs are redheads and should keep that red hair forever. “Warm” is the word to look for on any bottle of dye.



For hair style you should consider five points: your type, the shape of your face, the kind of hair you have, how handy you are with it, and your life style. A good hairdresser is your best friend, and you must give him or her as much information as possible about you and your hair. Discuss your facial shape and your life style. He or she is trained to help you achieve flattering lines. If your face is long and thin or rectangular, you will want to add fullness to the sides of your face. If it is round or square, you should minimize the sides. If you run into a stylist who wants to give you the “latest” without regard to how it looks on you, find another one. Don’t hesitate to insist that you are the classic rather than the dramatic type if you are being urged to have a frizzy and you feel it isn’t for you.

hair is of similar texture to yours. Spend money on your haircut. A good cut makes all the difference in your daily appearance.

ellous tool with which a woman can express her sexuality and how she feels about herself. Women who neglect their hair or wear an unflattering style are telling the world they are afraid to be beautiful.

Your hair style can date you, so do keep abreast of fashion. If you are wearing the same hair style you wore ten years ago, you undoubtedly look less youthful than you could. By the same token, wearing an “in,” super-short, severe cut when you are a romantic needing femininity and curls is sacrificing your beauty to fashion. Be fashionable, be chic, but always be yourself. Adapt the current trend so that it works for you. The right hair colour and style work wonders for your total appearance.




Hairdressing is the art of arranging the hair or otherwise modifying its natural state. Closely related to headgear, hairdressing has been an important part of the dress of both men and women since antiquity and, like dress, serves a number of functions.

lacquered, black wig.

the Royalist Anglican Cavaliers were professed by the long curling locks and the Parliamentarian Puritan Roundheads by the cropped hair.

maidens wore uncovered flowing hair, while matrons bound theirs under veils. As a sign of mourning the ancient Egyptians, whose heads were usually shaven, grew long hair, and long haired Hindu widows cut off their hair.

From the late Middle Ages, hair styles in the West have been greatly influenced by changing fashion. In the 17th century, for example, courtiers followed the lead of the balding Louis XIV, who wore a wig. In the 20th century women of all classes eagerly followed the example of film stars with such styles as the platinum hair of Jean Harlow.

Until the 20th century, fashionable hair styles generally were limited to the upper classes, and the dictates of fashion were relatively rigid. To day, with the general increase in wealth, the improvement in mass communication, and the trend toward informality and individualism, women (and men) in all classes can choose the style and colour of their own hair, or of a wig, that best suit their needs and tastes.



possible the perfect oval. The circularity of a round face may be minimized by a sleek, controlled style with side bangs.

A square face needs a style that cuts across the square corners at the temples and is full around the jaw. The best style for a long face also rounds off the corners at the temples and is short. For a triangular face, a narrow chin should be filled out with chin-length hair, while a wide chin may be minimized with wide bangs. In finding the right hairstyle, however, a woman should also consider the proportions of her whole figure, the texture of her hair, her skill in handling it and the character of her life.

Once a hairstyle is chosen, it must be maintained by regular washing, setting and, usually, cutting. Some women care for their hair principally at home, going to the hairdresser only for a cut or a shampoo and set for a special occasion. Many women go to the hairdresser once a week, while still others may see him every day for a combing.

Clean, healthy hair is the basis of any hair style. In addition to brushing, dry-hair requires shampooing once a week, oily hair perhaps every day. Shampoos are soapy or synthetic detergents in liquid, gel, lotion, or cream form and may have special uses.

There are non -drying shampoos for normal hair, egg shampoos to add sheen to dry hair, and lemon shampoos to cut extra oils in oily hair. There are hypoallergenic shampoos for sensitive scalps, medicated shampoos for scalp problems, and special shampoos for tinted or bleached hair.

brittle. Streaking is the two-tone process applied to strands separated from the mass of hair.

Cutting. Fundamental to a short hairstyle is the cut. A blunt cut with scissors makes the ends of the hair straight. Cutting with a razor tapers the ends so that they cling close to the head.

Setting and Waving. Most hair, especially if it is short, needs to be arranged in a certain position while wet to give it shape when dry.

wet hair help the set to hold its shape and last longer.

waves for gray hair and children’s hair. Naturally curly hair can be straightened by a permanent wave in reverse.

which is then smoothed down to follow the colour of the head. Then the hair is lifted slightly with the handle of a rattail comb, and hair spray is lightly applied to help hold the style in place.



and Assyrian men dyed their long hair and square beards black and crimped and curled them with curling irons. Sometimes wigs were worn. Persian nobles also curled their hair and beards and stained them red with henna.

even blue, dusted with gold, white or red powder), and others adorned it with flowers, ribbons, and jewelled tiaras.

, men and women generally followed simple Greek styles, but under the empire the upper classes used curling irons and the men dusted their hair with collared powder or gold dust. Women dyed their hair bond with yellow soap or wore ebony wigs or wigs-made from the blond hair of captive barbarians. Their hair was piled high in curls and braids, sometimes arranged on crescent-shaped wire frames. Throughout the ancient world hair-dressing and shaving were accomplished by domestic slaves or in public barbershops.

(public baths), where the men were shaved (sometimes the whole head except for the long topknot) and their beards v ere trimmed. The women’s long hair was washed and often given a henna rinse.

, men traditionally shaved the front hair and combed the back hair into a queue braided with horsehair or black silk. The queue was a mark of dignity and manhood. To pull it was a grave insult. Chinese women combed their hair back, sometimes under a bandeau, into a low knot, which might be decorated with jewelled combs, hairpins, or flowers. Unmarried girls wore long plaits.

, traditionally, men usually shaved the front and top of the head, leaving a little stiff pigtail al the back of the crown. Women’s hair in the medieval period streamed down their backs. After the introduction of pomade in the 17th century, women’s hair was swept and arranged with combs, bars, ribbons, and long ornamental hairpins, revealing the nape of the neck, which was thought to be especially appealing. The Geisha’s lacquered coiffures, which often were wigs, were especially elaborate.




boy style. The ear-revealing style of the early 15th century was superseded longer page-boy style.

, women displayed their hair in plaits and under low, jewelled turbans, bandeaus or caps. Both men and women strove to achieve blond hair by either using a bleach or saffron or onion skin dye, or, in the case of Italian women, by sitting for hours in a crownless hat in the sun.

, was popular, and false hair and wigs were used. Hair was dusted with powder or flour for blonds, violet for brunettes and white for the gray and held in place by gum or rotten oak paste. Lead combs were believed to restore colour to the hair. Jewels, feathers and ornamental hairpins provided decoration.

the Vandyke. Later in the 17th century men shaved their faces and their beads, covering their heads with caps at home or long, full-bottomed, curled wigs in public.

(hedgehog) style for men and women, loose, bushy mass of curls.

, published the Art de la coiffure des dames (1765), and opened an Academic de Coiffure in 1769.

The French Revolution and Empire and the accompanying taste for simplicity and the antique had a great effect on hairstyles. Both men and women cut their hair very short, like the Roman emperors, or women twisted their hair into Greek knots, with short curls framing the face, or later into smooth plaits around the head. They also wore coloured wigs.

oil. Most men wore some variety of moustache, sideburns, or beard.

in the 1870’s.

established men’s hairdressing salons that offered scissor or razor cuts, lotions, drying in nets, hairspray, and colouring.

he must serve an apprenticeship of from one to five years before registering to practice.



. The idea of using cosmetics to enhance the appearance has not changed since these times. Using cosmetics is still designed to capture the appearance of youth in perfect health. Colourful cosmetics hide the appearance of pale cheeks, pale lips and fingernails and dull hair.

Many of the cosmetics used contained dangerous ingredients. There was often more importance put on the application of cosmetics rather than washing and cleaning the skin. From the 1400s whitening the face was one of the most common cosmetic practices. This was still popular in the 1800s. A mixture composed of carbonate, hydroxide and lead oxide was commonly used. This could lead to muscle paralysis or death when used repeatedly. It was replaced by zinc oxide in the 1800s.

Another way to have whiter skin was to bleed yourself. This was done by using the widespread medical practice of using leeches or occasionally a more extreme method called cupping.

the colour of nail varnish used also represented social class. Henna was used to dye the nails. Modern nail varnish comes in a variety of colours and is actually a variation of car paint.

not new. The Romans, Ancient Egyptians and Greeks were all involved in elaborate forms of hairdressing and dyeing. Most of the early hair dyes, such as henna, indigo, sage and camomile, could only darken the hair. Roman women would show off their dark shiny tresses that had been dyed with a mixture of boiled walnuts and leeks. They also used blond dyes made from goat’s fat and ashes. In the Renaissance, blond was also popular as it was considered angelic.

t was originally called Aureole, but later it was renamed L’Oreal.














or universities

n. 1) additional or extra thing; 2) small attachment, fitting or subsidiary item of dress (e.g. shoes, gloves)

– n. 1) salt or ester of acetic acid, especially the cellulose ester; 2) fabric made of this

1) bring to a successful conclusion; accomplish; attain; 2) gain as by hard work or effort

– n. acrylic fibre or fabric. – adj. of synthetic material made from acrylic acid

n. person who acts in a play, film, broadcast, etc.

– n. short for advertisement

Adobe Systems

– v. 1) choose and follow (a plan, technique, etc.); 2) take over (an idea, etc.) as if it were one’s own


1) being ahead in development, knowledge, progress, etc.; 2) ahead of the times

– n. arrival or coming, especially one which is awaited

v. 1) promote (goods or services) publicly to increase sales; 2) make generally known

n. 1) public announcement, especially of goods or services for sale or wanted vacancies, etc.; 2) advertising

n. 1) promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media, such as radio or television; 2) business that specializes in creating such publicity

– n. art of taking and processing photographs for the purpose of illustrating and usually selling a service or a product

branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and expression of beauty, as in the fine arts; 2) study of the rules and principles of art

expose or be exposed to the air so as to cool or freshen; ventilate; 2) expose or be exposed to warm or heated air so as to dry

– n. 1) person who engages in an art, science, study, etc. as a pastime rather than a profession; 2) one lacking the skill of a professional as in an art. – adj. 1) of or performed by an amateur; 2) made up of amateurs; 3) not professional; unskilful

– n. 1) power to attract, please, stimulate or interest. – v. attract, please, stimulate or interest

1) act or an instance of appearing, as to the eye, before the public, etc.; 2) outward or visible aspect of a person or thing

to objects of function and everyday use

– adj. right or suitable; fitting

perfect or typical specimen; 2) original model or pattern; prototype; 3) constantly recurring symbol or motif in literature, painting, etc.

– n. one who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other large structures

– n. 1) art and science of designing and erecting buildings; 2) buildings and other large structures; 3) style and method of design and construction; 4) overall design or structure of a computer system, including the hardware and the software required to run it, especially the internal structure of the microprocessor

– n. method of retaining information outside of the internal memory of a computer

put into a proper, systematic or decorative order

tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time

) – n. filament made from materials such as glass, rayon or nylon

– n. 1) person who practices or is skilled in an art, especially painting, drawing or sculpture; 2) person who displays in his work qualities required in art, such as sensibility and imagination; 3) person whose profession requires artistic expertise, especially a designer

– n. 1) something such as a tie, band or fastener that attaches one thing to another; 2) supplementary part; an accessory

– n. spectators or listeners assembled at a performance or attracted by a radio or television program

– n. computer file that contains digitized audio

– adj. of undisputed origin or authorship; genuine

n. speciality application-dependent software allowing to develop interactive multimedia applications

– n. group active in the invention and application of new techniques in a given field, especially in the arts. – adj. of, relating to or being part of an innovative group, especially one in the arts


1) ground or scenery located behind something; 2) general scene or surface against which designs, patterns or figures are represented or viewed; 3) part of a pictorial representation that appears to be in the distance and that provides relief for the principal objects in the foreground

– n. opera consisting of popular tunes to which appropriate words have been set interspersed with spoken dialogue

fringe or section of hair cut straight across the forehead. – v. cut (the hair) in such a style

from the late 16th to the early 18th century characterized by extensive ornamentation

) necklace made of such pieces

large rectangular piece of cotton, linen, etc., generally one of a pair used as inner bedclothes

– n. room used primarily for sleeping  

– v. engage, request or ask for in advance

photograph, picture, sketch, etc. in black, white and shades of grey rather than in colour

fairly lightweight jacket often striped or in the colours of a sports club, school, etc.

combined or mixed together

1) flower of a plant; 2) condition of being in flower

– adj. clear and distinct to the eye; conspicuous

– n. 1) long narrow pillow or cushion; 2) any pad or padded support

worn by men

length of hair, fabric, etc. that has been braided; plait; 2) narrow ornamental tape of woven silk, wool, etc. – v. 1) interweave several strands of (hair, thread, etc.); plait; 2) dress or bind (the hair) with a ribbon, etc.; 3) decorate with an ornamental trim or border

– adj. absolutely new

– n. piece of armour covering the chest


– n. 1) device consisting of bristles fastened into a handle used in scrubbing, polishing or painting; 2) act or an instance of brushing. – v. clean, polish, scrub, paint, etc. with a brush

ornament that resembles this clasp such as a metal square on a shoe or hat. – v. fasten or be fastened with a buckle

– adj. awkwardly large

– n. card bearing business information about a company or individual


– n. slender rod, usually wooden and often ornamental used for support when walking; walking stick

heavy fabric for covering floors

renown; fame

– n. object used as the centre of something, especially for decoration

or jewellery that consists of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh

– n. 1) person represented in a play, film, story, role; 2) outstanding person; 3) letter, numeral, etc. which is a unit of information and can be represented uniquely by a binary pattern

loose-fitting dress hanging straight from the shoulders; 2) loose shirt, like undergarment

– n. cabinet or enclosed recess for linens, household supplies or clothing

– n. 1) fabric formed by weaving, felting or knitting wool, cotton, etc.; 2) piece of such fabric used for a particular purpose as for a dishcloth

– v. 1) dress or attire (a person); 2) provide with clothing or covering

) articles of dress

– n. 1) garments collectively; 2) something that covers or clothes

– n. 1) outdoor garment with sleeves covering the body from the shoulder to waist, knee or foot; 2) any similar garment, especially one forming the top to a suit; 3) hair, wool or fur of an animal

by a compound to impart certain qualities to the paper including weight and surface gloss, smoothness or ink absorbency

– n. 1) act of working jointly; 2) something created by working jointly

1) publisher’s emblem on a book; 2) inscription at the end of a book showing the title, printer, date, etc.

something; 3) take on colour; blush

– n. film, plate or other photographic material containing an image in which the light areas of the object rendered appear dark and the dark areas appear light

planned combination or juxtaposition of colours as in interior decorating

are displayed as an aid to colour identification, choosing and mixing

– v. arrange the hair loosely by combing

– n. 1) dramatic or other work of light and amusing character; 2) genre of drama represented by works of this type; 3) humour or comic style

1) giving comfort or physical relief; 2) at ease

) woollen scarf

– n. play largely set to music employing comic effects or situations

art of taking and processing photographs the primary focus of which is to sell products or services

communicate with people

– n. one of two parts that make up a whole or complete each other. – v. add to, make complete or form a complement to

such as red and green, blue and orange, and violet and yellow

use of computer techniques in designing products, especially involving the use of computer graphics

– n. 1) similarity in form or character; agreement; 2) action or behaviour in correspondence with socially accepted standards, conventions, rules or laws

after World War I. It explored the use of movement and machine-age materials in sculpture and had considerable influence on modern art and architecture

World War II

chapters or divisions of a book; 3) meaning or significance of a poem, painting or other work of art as distinguished from its style or form

n. 1) juxtaposition of dissimilar elements as colour, tone or emotion in a work of art (principle of design (art)); 2) difference or degree of difference between things having similar or comparable natures. – v. 1) set together so as to reveal a contrast; 2) have or show a contrast

of contributing; 2) something contributed such as money or ideas; 3) article, story, etc. contributed to a newspaper or other publication

1) suitable for one’s purpose or needs; opportune; 2) easy to use; 3) close by or easily accessible; handy

communication issued by a corporate organization, body, institute to all its public(s)

– n. way an organization is presented to or perceived by its members and the public

is perceived

n. 1) waist or bodice of a dress; 2) arrangement of flowers worn as a fashion accessory

– n. 1) close-fitting undergarment, often reinforced by stays worn to support and shape the waistline, hips and breasts; 2) medieval outer garment, especially a laced jacket or bodice

decorative rather than functional

– n. 1) style of dress including garments, accessories and hairstyle, especially as characteristic of a particular country, period or people; 2) outfit or disguise worn in a play by an actor or at a fancy dress ball; 3) set of clothes appropriate for a particular occasion or season. – v. 1) put a costume on; dress; 2) furnish the costumes for (a show, film, etc.)

, footwear, hats and head dresses for the actors to wear, but it may also include designing masks, makeup or other unusual forms


list or chart that shows which characters appear in each scene, what they are wearing and their overall movement throughout the play

– n. high-fashion designing and dressmaking

– n. fashion designer

especially in handiwork; 2) occupation or trade requiring special skill, especially manual dexterity; 3) members of such a trade regarded collectively. – v. make in a skilful way, especially by hand

n. member of a skilled trade; someone who practises a craft, artisan

); 3) be engaged in creative work

– adj. 1) having the ability to create; 2) characterized by originality of thought; having or showing imagination; 3) designed to or tending to stimulate the imagination. – n. creative person, especially one who devises advertising campaigns

– n. 1) stiff fabric originally of horsehair and linen used in lining garments; 2) petticoat stiffened with this worn to distend skirts, especially in the mid 19th century

of the 20th century. In cubist artworks objects are broken up, analyzed and re-assembled in an abstracted form. Instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent it in a greater context


achievements, etc. of a particular civilization or group (Chinese culture); 4) particular civilization at a particular period

– n. having or arranged in curls

– n. pad or pillow with soft filling used for resting, reclining or kneeling

one that buys goods or services; 2) individual with whom one must deal

n. 1) piece cut off from the main part of something; 2) process of shaping and forming (a dress); 3) article, photograph, etc. cut from a newspaper or other publication


reversible figured woven fabric, especially white table linen. – adj. made of damask

– n. performer who dances professionally

– n. 1) style or scheme of interior decoration, furnishings, etc. as in a room or house; 2) stage decoration; scenery

something used to decorate


1) trace the shape or outline of; sketch; 2) represent pictorially as by making a chart or diagram; depict

– n. large shop divided into departments selling different goods

represent by or as by drawing, sculpture, painting, etc.; delineate; portray; 2) represent in words; describe

plan, scheme or project. – v. 1) work out the structure or form of something as by making a sketch, outline, pattern or plan; 2) plan and make something artistically or skilfully; 3) form or conceive in the mind; invent

cleansing substance that acts similarly to soap but is made from chemical compounds rather than fats and lye

argument that is conclusive

plan, sketch, drawing or outline designed to demonstrate or explain how something works or to clarify the relationship between the parts of a whole

representing data as a series of numerical values

of subjects

) measurement of the size of something in a particular direction such as the length, width, height or diameter

make or become smaller, fewer or less

– n. person responsible for the artistic and technical aspects of making a film or television programme

advertisements, etc. – v. 1) show or make visible; 2) give prominence to (headings, captions, etc.) by the use of certain typefaces

differentiate; see or draw distinctions; 2) be a distinctive feature of; characterize; 3) classify; categorize; 4) make (oneself) noteworthy

or student pursuit

systematic representation and dimensional specification of mechanical and architectural structures

– n. act of drawing. – v. depict or sketch (a form, figure, picture, etc.) in lines as with a pencil or pen, especially without the use of colour; delineate


dress a store window); 4) comb out or arrange (the hair) into position

– n. set of rules or guidelines regarding the manner of dress acceptable in an office, restaurant, etc.

– n. person whose occupation is making women’s clothes

– n. act of cleaning (clothes, etc.) with solvents without water

– n. thick soft quilt used instead of sheets and blankets


– adj. 1) (in art, philosophy, etc.) selecting what seems best from various styles, doctrines, ideas, methods, etc.; 2) composed of elements drawn from a variety of sources, styles, etc.

– n. 1) assemble, prepare or modify (written material for publication); 2) be editor (of a newspaper, etc.); 3) prepare (data) for processing by a computer; 4) alter (a text entered in a word processor, etc.)

1) of or relating to editing or editors; 2) of, relating to or expressed in an editorial; 3) of or relating to the content of a publication rather than its commercial aspects

– adj. 1) intricate and rich in detail; 2) planned or executed with painstaking attention to numerous parts or details

, etc.)



– v. carve or decorate with a design in relief

– n. decorative needlework done usually on loosely woven cloth or canvas, often being a picture or pattern

which means occurrence of differing elements, such as colour, value, size, etc.

1) sheet of paper folded in half to make two leaves for a book or manuscript; 2) book or manuscript of the largest common size made up of such sheets

art or technique of one that engraves; 2) design or text engraved on a surface; 3) engraved surface for printing; 4) print made from an engraved plate or block

– v. 1) make more beautiful; adorn; decorate; 2) improve in quality, colour, flavour, etc.

operating system, program or integrated suite of programs that provides all the facilities necessary for a particular application

– n. attire for wearing at a formal occasion during the evening, especially (for men) a dinner jacket and black tie or (for women) a floor-length gown

– v. make greater, more noticeable, etc. than usual

– n. forming an exception; not ordinary

– n. extent to which a light-sensitive material can be over or underexposed and still achieve an acceptable result

at the beginning of the 20th century which sought to express emotions rather than to represent external reality. It is characterized by the use of symbolism, exaggeration and distortion

excellent; flawless




– n. 1) any cloth made from yarn or fibres by weaving, knitting, felting, etc.; 2) texture of a cloth

– n. process of losing brightness, colour or clarity

– n. support such as a hoop worn beneath a skirt to extend it horizontally from the waist used by European women in the 16th and 17th centuries

) (especially of accessories) designed to be in the current fashion, but not necessarily to last; 3) manner of performance; mode; way; 4) way of life that revolves around the activities, dress, interests, etc. that are most fashionable; 5) shape, appearance or form; 6) sort; kind; type. – v. 1) give a particular form to; 2) make suitable or fitting

– n. someone who designs clothing

establishment in which fashionable clothes are designed made and sold


– n. 1) illustration of the latest fashion in dress; 2) fashionably dressed person


) dress; attire

depict or outline the features of


substance or thing used to fill a space or container


n. refers to photographs that are created in accordance with the creative vision of the photographer as artist

sheet (usually with elastic edges) tailored to fit a particular mattress

) furnishings or accessories in a building; 3) act of trying on clothes so that they can be adjusted to fit. – adj. appropriate or proper; suitable

– n. 1) tuft as of wool, hair, cotton, etc.; 2) waste from fabrics such as cotton, wool or other cloth used for stuffing mattresses, upholstered chairs, etc.; 3) very small tufts of wool applied to fabrics, wallpaper, etc. to give a raised pattern. – v. fill, cover or ornament with flock

and floral arrangements were used to send coded messages, allowing individuals to express feelings which otherwise could not be spoken

– n. store that sells flowers


– n. 1) traditional dance originating among the common people of a nation or region; 2) music accompanying such a dance

for use in advertisement, packaging, menu or cookbook

(art)). – v. 1) give shape or form to, or take shape or form, especially a specified or particular shape; 2) come or bring into existence; 3) make, produce or construct, or be made, produced or constructed; 4) be an element of, serve as or constitute

) something unnecessary added as decoration. – v. adorn or fit with a frill or frills; 2) form into a frill or frills

– adj. having decorative ruffles or frills

adorn or fit with a fringe or fringes; 2) be a fringe for

– adj. 1) of, involving or containing a function or functions; 2) practical rather than decorative; utilitarian; 3) capable of functioning; working

– n. essential peculiarity

– n. 1) thick coat of soft hair covering the skin of a mammal such as a fox or beaver; 2) hair-covered, dressed pelt of such a mammal used in the making of garments and as trimming or decoration; 3) garment made of or lined with the dressed pelt of a mammal; 4) coating similar to the pelt of a mammal

1) provide (a house, room, etc.) with furniture, carpets, etc.; 2) equip with what is necessary; fit out; 3) give; supply

) furniture and accessories including carpets and curtains with which a room, house, etc. is furnished

– n. movable, generally functional articles that equip a room, house, etc.

in 1909 to replace traditional aesthetic values with the characteristics of the machine age


) article of clothing; 2) outer covering

cotton fabric, usually woven of two coloured yarns in a checked or striped design

of a subject in a still position. The subjects of glamour photography are often professional models and the photographs are normally intended for commercial use

long, usually formal dress for a woman

– n. visual communication by a skilful combination of text and pictures in advertisements, magazines, books, etc.



process or art of dyeing or tinting one’s hair

sticky, quick-drying liquid sprayed on the hair to keep it in place

1) occupation of a hairdresser; 2) act of dressing or arranging the hair; 3) cosmetic or medicinal preparation for dressing the hair

language of flowers

furnish, decorate or appoint by suspending objects around or about; 3) display as in a gallery or office

– n. elastic, durable and tough clothes

any of various head coverings, especially one with a brim and a shaped crown

1) high fashion; 2) leading establishments or designers for the creation of exclusive fashions

– n. ribbon or band worn around the head

– adj. made to withstand hard wear, bad weather, etc.

– n. piece of protective or defensive armour for the head worn by soldiers, policemen, firemen, divers, etc.

) bleached blond streak in the hair; 2) area of the lightest tone in a painting, drawing, photograph, etc.

– n. piece of material, usually metal, curved or bent and used to suspend, catch, hold or pull something

n. art or science of cultivating gardens

text description language that is used for electronic publishing, especially on the World Wide Web


sign or symbol that directly represents a concept, idea or thing rather than a word or set of words for it

Japanese decorative art of flower arrangement

or idea; 2) fine transparent cloth used for dresses or trimmings

1) clarify or explain by use of examples, analogy, etc.; 2) be an example or demonstration of; 3) explain or decorate (a book, text, etc.) with pictures

1) pictorial matter used to explain or decorate a text; 2) example or demonstration; 3) act of illustrating or state of being illustrated

of an object; 2) mental representation or picture; idea produced by the imagination. – v. 1) picture in the mind; imagine; 2) make or reflect an image of; 3) portray or describe; 4) project or display on a screen or visual display unit

n. 1) ability or action of producing ideas, especially mental images of what is not present or has not been experienced; 2) mental creative ability

n. visual representation of an object using different computerized techniques

– v. 1) unite (one thing) with something else already in existence; 2) give substance or material form to; embody

– n. art or practice of designing any object for manufacture


– adj./adv. within an organization or group

– n. using or showing new methods, ideas, etc.

– n. 1) state or quality of being intense; 2) strength of a colour, especially the degree to which it lacks its complementary colour

. Interaction design defines the behaviour (interaction) of an artefact or system in response to its users

– n. 1) inside of a building or room with respect to design and decoration; 2) picture of the inside of a room or building as in a painting or stage design; 3) film or scene shot inside a building, studio, etc.

. The field is similar to architecture as it deals with architectural elements. It is similar to interior design as it focuses on interior spaces

– n. planning and realization of the layout, furnishing and decoration of an architectural interior

modification and planting of grounds, especially at or around a building site

v. create or devise (new ideas, machines, etc.)

act or process of inventing; 2) something that is invented; 3) creative power or ability; inventive skill

– v. smooth (clothes or fabric) by removing (creases or wrinkles) using a heated iron; press


– person who is competent with many skills but is not outstanding in any one

– n. 1) short coat, especially one that is hip-length and has a front opening and sleeves

– n. 1) knitted garment covering the upper part of the body; 2) machine-knitted slightly elastic cloth of wool, silk, nylon, etc. used for clothing

n. objects that are worn for personal adornment such as bracelets, rings, necklaces, etc. considered collectively


smooth transition

) – adj. very large

– adj. made by intertwining threads in a series of connected loops rather than by weaving


– n. 1) piece of paper, card or other material attached to an object to identify it or give instructions or details concerning its ownership, use, nature, destination, etc.; tag; 2) distinctive name or trademark identifying a product or manufacturer, especially a recording company

– n. 1) fine open fabric or trimming made by weaving thread in patterns; 2) cord, etc. passed through holes or hooks for fastening shoes, etc.

– n. any of various protective or ornamental coverings used to screen a light bulb

– n. popular style of photography intended to show different spaces within the world, vast and unending, or microscopic. Photographs typically capture the presence of nature and are often free of man-made obstructions

– n. part of a garment such as a coat or jacket that is an extension of the collar and folds back against the breast

– v. formally introduce (a new product) with publicity. – n. act of launching

– n. act of washing clothes and linen (usually with soap and water)

n. 1) arrangement or plan of something such as a building; 2) arrangement of written material, photographs or other artwork on an advertisement or page in a book, newspaper, etc.; 3) act of laying out

) leather clothes; 3) leather part(s) of a thing

– n. tight-fitting garment covering the body from the shoulders down to the thighs and worn by acrobats, ballet dancers, etc.

– adj. 1) cheerful or carefree in mood or disposition; 2) casual

, to create an overall ‘look’ for the show in response to the text while keeping in mind issues of visibility, safety and cost

(of a surface) having a photoelectric property such as the ability to generate a current, change its electrical resistance, etc. when exposed to light

by a moving point; 2) mark used to define a shape or represent a contour; 3) any of the marks that make up the formal design of a picture. – v. mark with a line or lines; 2) draw or represent with a line or lines; 3) be or put as a border to (e.g. tulips lined the lawns)

form of perspective in drawing and painting in which parallel lines are represented as converging so as to give the illusion of depth and distance

hard-wearing fabric woven from flax; 2) clothes, sheets, tablecloths, etc. made from linen cloth or from a substitute such as cotton. – adj. made of linen

room in a private residence intended for general social and leisure activities

– n. strand, curl or cluster of hair

and commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. Logos are either purely graphic or are composed of the name of the organization

– adj. 1) characterized by luxury; 2) enjoying or devoted to luxury


and other similar productions including all aspects of the modelling industry

– adj. made or produced by man; artificial

make or process (a raw material) into a finished product, especially by means of a large-scale industrial operation; 2) make or process (a product), especially with the use of industrial machines

n. 1) act or process of buying and selling in a market; 2) commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producer to consumer

covering for the whole or a part of the face worn for amusement, protection, disguise, etc.; 2) image of a face worn by an actor, especially in ancient Greek and Roman drama, in order to symbolize the character being portrayed

– adj. produced in quantity often by assembly-line techniques

n. 1) outstanding work, achievement or performance; 2) most outstanding piece of work of a creative artist, craftsman, etc.

– n. cloth or fabric

– v. 1) repair (something broken or unserviceable); 2) improve or undergo improvement; reform

one who runs a retail business; a shopkeeper

– n. 1) representation, usually on a smaller scale, of a device, structure, etc.; 2) standard to be imitated; 3) representative form, style or pattern; 4) person who poses for a sculptor, painter or photographer; 5) person who wears clothes to display them to prospective buyers; mannequin; 6) preparatory sculpture in clay, wax, etc. from which the finished work is copied; 7) design or style, especially one of a series of designs of a particular product. – v. 1) make a model of (something or someone); 2) form in clay, wax, etc.; mould; 3) display (clothing and accessories) as a mannequin; 4) plan or create according to a model or models

trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve and reshape their environment with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology or practical experimentation

– n. 1) black-and-white photograph or transparency; 2) (photography) black and white; 3) picture, especially a painting done in different shades of a single colour

n. 1) design or decoration made up of small pieces of coloured glass, stone, etc.; 2) process of making a mosaic

filmic techniques

– n. 1) brief statement used to express a principle, goal or ideal; 2) sentence, phrase or word of appropriate character inscribed on or attached to an object

combined use of media such as television, radio, print and the Internet as for advertising or publicity. – adj. 1) of or relating to the use of a combination of media; 2) of or relating to any of various systems which can manipulate data in a variety of forms such as sound, graphics or text

– n. 1) play or film, usually having a light romantic story that consists of dialogue interspersed with singing and dancing; 2) such plays and films collectively

– n. one who composes, conducts or performs music, especially instrumental music


– n. raised pile on textiles, especially velvet

– adj. 1) present in or produced by nature; 2) not artificially dyed or coloured

– n. process of reading and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another

– n. 1) pointed slender piece of metal, usually steel, with a hole or eye in it through which thread is passed for sewing; 2) somewhat larger rod with a point at one or each end used in knitting; 3) similar instrument with a hook at one end for crocheting

– n. late 18th and early 19th century style in architecture, decorative art and fine art based on the imitation of surviving classical models and types

body in a rough and violently emotional way using vivid colours and banal colour harmonies


– n. fashion in women’s clothes introduced in 1947 by Dior characterized by long full skirts

– n. 1) tough light elastic synthetic fibre; 2) nylon fabric


picture painted with oil paints; 2) art or process of painting with oil paints

1) state or quality of being opaque; 2) degree to which something is opaque; 3) opaque object or substance

light having certain properties while blocking the remainder

) any of the lenses, prisms or mirrors of an optical instrument

– n. 1) anything that enhances the appearance of a person or thing; 2) decorations collectively; 3) small decorative object. – v. 1) furnish with ornaments; 2) serve as an ornament to

ornamental plant

– n. 1) act or process of decorating, adorning or embellishing; 2) state of being decorated, adorned or embellished; 3) something that decorates or adorns; an embellishment

– n. 1) preliminary or schematic plan, draft, account, etc.; 2) drawing or manner of drawing consisting only of external lines. – v. draw or display the outline of

additional meaning or nuance


scale painting of each element that requires painting supplied to the scenic painter

– n. one who paints, either as an artist or worker

n. 1) art or process of applying paints to a surface such as canvas, to make a picture or other artistic composition; 2) composition or picture made in this way; 3) act of applying paint to a surface with a brush

– n. 1) flat piece of wood, plastic, etc. used by artists as a surface on which to mix their paints; 2) range of colours characteristic of a particular artist, painting or school of painting; 3) available range of colours or patterns that can be displayed by a computer on a visual display unit

’. Garment shaped to cover the body from the waist to the ankles or knees with separate tube-shaped sections for both legs

– n. 1) skin, especially of sheep or goat, prepared for writing or painting on; 2) manuscript written on this; 3) high-grade paper resembling parchment

needlework done by sewing pieces of different materials together

n. 1) act of performing or the state of being performed; 2) act or style of performing a work or role before an audience; 3) presentation, especially a theatrical one, before an audience


act of giving or receiving such a hairstyle

– n. woman’s light undergarment in the form of an underskirt or including a bodice supported by shoulder straps

or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically

photographic prints

Adobe Systems

– n. colouring matter used as paint or dye

– n. 1) cloth case stuffed with feathers, foam rubber, etc. used to support the head, especially during sleep; 2) decorative cushion

removable washable cover of cotton, linen, nylon, etc. for a pillow

ornament fastened to clothing by means of a clasp

– n. basic unit of the composition of an image on a television screen, computer monitor or similar display

– n. fold in cloth made by doubling the material upon itself and then pressing or stitching it into place. – v. arrange (material, part of a garment, etc.) in pleats

– n. synthetic fibre or resin

– n. foam made by adding water to polyurethane plastics

in the 1950s. It imitates the methods, styles and themes of popular culture and mass media such as comic strips, advertising and science fiction

– v. 1) make popular; make attractive to the general public; 2) make or cause to become easily understandable or acceptable

– n. 1) hard white translucent ceramic made by firing a pure clay and then glazing it with variously coloured fusible materials; china; 2) object made of this substance or such objects collectively

or other artistic representation of a person in which the face and its expression is predominant

– n. 1) practice or art of making portraits; 2) portraits collectively

– n. photographic image in which the lights and darks appear as they do in nature

– n. art movement that rejects the dogma and practices of any form of modernism. In architecture, contrasting with international modernism and featuring elements from several periods, especially the classical, often with ironic use of decoration

– n. textile machine for weaving yarn into a textile operated mechanically

n. 1) selecting of someone or something over another or others; 2) state of being preferred

apply heat or pressure to (clothing) so as to smooth out creases; iron

announcement of an event, performance or other newsworthy item that is issued to the press

– n. ready-to-wear clothing

and absorb other wavelengths may be mixed to produce all colours

. Those principles are proportion, rhythm, harmony, balance, unity

publication such as a newspaper or book. – v. 1) press (a mark or design) onto or into a surface; 2) offer in printed form; publish; 3) produce a photographic print from (a negative)

– n. 1) person responsible for the artistic direction of a play including interpretation of the script, preparation of the actors and overall design; 2) person who takes overall administrative responsibility for a film or television programme


or financiers of the film

– n. group of technical staff who produces a play, television show or film

quality of being productive or having the power to produce

theatrical production

needed for a production

) dimensions or size

outstanding or superior skill or ability

company or person engaged in publishing periodicals, books, music, etc.

– adj. gathered for protruding fullness

garment such as a sweater that is put on by being drawn over the head

something that is purchased, especially an article bought with money. – v. obtain (goods, etc.) by payment


having a high degree of excellence

– n. 1) thick warm cover for a bed consisting of a soft filling sewn between two layers of material, usually with crisscross seams; 2) anything quilted or resembling a quilt


– n. textile fabric made from cellulose

inclination toward literal truth and pragmatism; 2) representation in art or literature of objects, actions or social conditions as they actually are without idealization or presentation in abstract form

n. small alteration that you make to something in order to improve it

v. 1) throw back (light, heat, sound, etc.) from a surface; 2) show or express

– n. session of practising a play, concert, speech, etc. in preparation for public performance

, and included an emphasis on human beings, their environment, science and philosophy

man who has broad intellectual interests and is accomplished in areas of both the arts and the sciences

– n. 1) act or an instance of performing a play, piece of music, etc.; 2) perspective drawing showing an architect’s idea of a finished building, interior, etc.

so that the same elements are used over and over again

something that is required; necessity; 2) something obligatory; prerequisite

establish on a new scale

– n. systematic investigation to establish facts or principles, or to collect information on a subject

ability of a television or film image to reproduce fine detail


– n. narrow strip or band of fabric used especially for trimming or decoration

– n. temporary hair tint

– n. short metal pin for fastening two or more pieces together having a head at one end, the other end being hammered flat after being passed through holes in the pieces

in the early 18th century characterized by elaborate but graceful, light ornamentation, often containing asymmetrical motifs

– n. small cylinder on which hair is rolled for setting

– n. window shade that rolls up out of the way

– n. theory, practice and style of the romantic art, music and literature of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, usually opposed to classicism

floor covering smaller than a carpet and made of thick wool or of other material such as an animal skin

narrow ramp extending from the stage into the audience in a theatre, nightclub, etc., especially as used by models in a fashion show


– n. 1) smooth fabric as of silk or rayon woven with a glossy face and a dull back; 2) garment made of this fabric. – adj. made of or covered with satin

; its intensity

triangle with no two sides of equal length

theatre stage; 2) scenery and properties for a dramatic presentation; 3) place in which the action of a play, movie, novel or other narrative occurs; a setting; 4) subdivision of an act in a dramatic presentation in which the setting is fixed and the time continuous; 5) prospect of a place, landscape, etc.

and other scenic (set) pieces required for a performance

techniques and often reaching far beyond

– n. person who develops the appearance of a stage design, a TV or movie set, a gaming environment, a trade fair exhibition design or a museum experience exhibition design

– n. written copy for the use of performers in films and plays. – v. write a script for

– n. person who practises sculpture


n. colour formed by mixing two primary colours

arrange (a stage, television studio, etc.) with scenery and props

s, scale drawings, paint elevations, etc.) for theatrical, film or television performances


– n. 1) long wooden bench with a back; 2) small or medium-sized sofa

1) surroundings in which something is set; scene; 2) scenery, properties or background used to create the location for a stage play, film, etc.

– n. 1) way in which anything is organized or arranged; 2) position of the camera, microphones and performers at the beginning of a scene

– v. 1) join or decorate (pieces of fabric, etc.) by means of a thread repeatedly passed through with a needle or similar implement; 2) (often followed by ‘on’ or ‘up’) attach, fasten or close by sewing; 3) make (a garment, etc.) by sewing

– n. material or work to be sewn

– n. machine for sewing, often having additional attachments for special stitching

darker area indicated in a painting, drawing, etc. by shading; 3) colour that varies slightly from a standard colour due to a difference in hue, saturation or luminosity

cast by an object blocking rays of illumination. – v. 1) cast a shadow over; 2) make dark or gloomy; 3) shade from light

– v. remove bristles or hair with a razor

– n. piece of fabric, knitted or crocheted material worn over the shoulders or head

r – n. collar rolled back in a continuous and tapering line along the surplice neckline of a garment

durable covering for the human foot made of leather or similar material with a rigid sole and heel, usually extending no higher than the ankle

) trousers reaching the top of the thigh or partway to the knee worn by both sexes for sport, relaxing in summer, etc.

n. 1) picture showing the outline only, usually in black on white or cut from paper; 2) dark shadow or outline against a lighter background; 3) (in fashion) shape of the human body. – v. represent or show in silhouette

– n. 1) very fine, soft fibre made by silkworms; 2) thread, cloth, etc. made from this fibre

– n. ability to do something well; technique, expertise

– n. 1) woman’s garment hanging from the waist; 2) part of a coat, etc. hanging below the waist

– n. having long and narrow ornamental cuts showing an underlying fabric

smooth and shiny; polished

– n. part of a garment covering the arm



person who practices the art of sound design

(art) that refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below or within things. – v. place or arrange at intervals or with spaces between; 2) separate (letters, words or lines) by the insertion of spaces

– n. makeup used by actors to assist in creating the appearance of the characters they portray

– n. glass that has been coloured in any of various ways as by fusing with a film of metallic oxide or burning pigment into the surface used especially for church windows


– adj. rigid, inflexible

depiction of inanimate subject matter, most typically a small grouping of objects which may be either natural or man-made

– n. woman’s long scarf of cloth or fur worn by women

and other settings

particular mode of orthography, design, etc. followed in a book, journal or in a printing or publishing house. – v. 1) design, shape or tailor (e.g. to style hair); 2) adapt or make suitable; 3) make consistent or correct according to a printing or publishing style

having style; smart; fashionable

1) set of matching outer garments, especially one consisting of a coat with trousers or a skirt; 2) outfit for a special activity. – v. 1) make or be fit or appropriate for; 2) please; satisfy; 3) provide with clothing; dress; 4) meet the requirements of; fit

cultural movement that began in the early 1920s and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. The works feature the element of surprise and unexpected juxtapositions

– n. late 19th century movement in art that sought to express mystical or abstract ideas through the symbolic use of images


– n. cloth spread over a table, especially for meals

makes, repairs and alters clothing professionally, especially suits and men’s clothing. – v. cut or style (material, clothes, etc.) to satisfy certain requirements

heavy ornamental fabric, often in the form of a picture, used for wall hangings, furnishings, etc. and made by weaving coloured threads into a fixed warp

tuft of loose threads secured by a knot or ornamental knob used to decorate soft furnishings, clothes, etc. – v. adorn with a tassel or tassels

– n. 1) personal preference or liking; 2) ability to make discerning judgments about aesthetic, artistic and intellectual matters; 3) judgment of aesthetic or social matters according to a generally accepted standard

) comb the under layers of the hair towards the roots to give more bulk to a hairstyle

– n. colour formed by mixing two secondary colours

any fabric or cloth, especially woven; 2) raw material suitable to be made into cloth; fibre or yarn. – adj. of or relating to fabrics or the making of fabrics

– n. conventional expression of gratitude

– n. 1) fine strand, filament or fibre of some material; 2) fine cord of twisted filaments, especially of cotton, used in sewing, weaving, etc.

) 1) snug stretchable garment covering the body from the waist or neck down designed for general wear by women and girls; 2) similar garment designed for athletic use worn especially by acrobats and dancers

1) graphic representation showing the passage of time as a line; 2) time frame during which something is scheduled to happen

dye for the hair

– n. 1) quality of a given colour as modified by mixture with white or black; shade; tint; 2) overall effect of the colour values and gradations of light and dark in a picture; 3) (photography) colour or shade of colour including black or grey, of a particular area on a negative or positive that can be distinguished from surrounding lighter or darker areas. – v. 1) give a tone to or correct the tone of; 2) (photography) soften or change the colour of the tones of a photographic image by chemical means

– n. garment, especially for a woman, that extends from the shoulders to the waist or hips

split or cut

– n. distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, company or other entity to identify its products or services and to distinguish them from those of other producers

n. 1) drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness or inability to cope with unfavourable circumstances; 2) genre made up of such works; 3) art or theory of writing or producing these works

– n. still, positive image created on a transparent base using photochemical means

– v. 1) subject to a process or to the application of a substance; 2) deal with or regard in a certain manner

– n. 1) general tendency or direction 2) fashion; mode

– v. 1) make neat or of the required size or form, especially by cutting away irregular or unwanted parts; 2) (followed by ‘off’ or ‘away’) cut off (unwanted parts); 3) ornament, decorate. – n. 1) ornament or decorative material; 2) trimming of a person’s hair

) parts that are cut off

– n. any of various hip-length or knee-length garments such as the loose sleeveless attire worn in ancient Greece or Rome, the jacket of some soldiers or a woman’s hip-length garment worn with a skirt or trousers

– n. 1) traditionally Muslim headdress consisting of a long scarf of linen, cotton or silk that is wound around a small cap or directly around the head; 2) woman’s close-fitting hat that consists of material wound around a small inner cap

typically given as a gift

– n. very short skirt worn by ballerinas made of projecting layers of stiffened sheer material

any small branch or shoot of a tree or other woody plant

– adj. 1) having only two dimensions, especially length and width; 2) (of painting or drawing) lacking the characteristics of form or depth

letter spacing


– n. 1) prescribed identifying set of clothes for the members of an organization such as soldiers or schoolchildren; 2) single set of such clothes; 3) characteristic feature or fashion of some class or group. – adj. 1) unvaried in texture, colour or design; 2) always the same as in character or degree; unvarying; 3) conforming to one principle, standard or rule; consistent

of or relating to clothing, hairstyle, etc. that can be worn by either sex

state or quality of being one; singleness; 2) act, state or quality of forming a whole from separate parts; 3) uniformity or constancy; 4) ordering of all elements in a work of art or literature so that each contributes to a unified aesthetic effect (principle of design (art))

– adj. 1) easy to use or understand; 2) (of a computer system) easily operated and understood by means of a straightforward guide in jargon-free language


. – v. assess or estimate the worth, merit or desirability of something; appraise

in involved ways to achieve intricate and complex relationships

computer graphics

– n. soft fabric with a thick short pile on one side. – adj. of, like or soft as velvet

different uses, skills, etc.

and other live events

– n. small card bearing the name and usually the address of a person, especially for giving to business or social acquaintances

) arts of painting, sculpting, photography, etc. as opposed to music, drama and literature

, colour and electronic resources


– n. 1) constricted part of the trunk between the ribs and hips; 2) part of a garment covering the waist

– n. 1) paper usually printed or printed with designs for pasting onto walls as a decorative covering; 2) picture or design displayed on the background of a computer screen. – v. cover (a surface) with wallpaper

– n. 1) tall closet or cupboard with a rail or hooks on which to hang clothes; 2) total collection of articles of clothing belonging to one person; 3) collection of costumes belonging to a theatre or theatrical company

– n. yarns arranged lengthways on a loom forming the threads through which the weft yarns are woven

(especially of fabrics or clothes) capable of being washed without deteriorating

1) articles washed or intended to be washed at one time; 2) liquid in which an article has been washed

act of wearing or state of being worn; 2) anything designed to be worn (e.g. sportswear; footwear)

– v. form (a fabric) by interlacing (yarn, etc.), especially on a loom

n. set of interconnected web pages, usually including a homepage, generally located on the same server prepared and maintained as a collection of information by a person, group or organization


having sufficient equipment, supplies or abilities

1) extending over a wide area; 2) accepted by or occurring among many people

– n. artificial head of hair

. Wildlife photography is regarded as being one of the more challenging forms of photography

– n. 1) outer coat of sheep, yaks, etc. which consists of short curly hairs; 2) yarn spun from the coat of sheep, etc. used in weaving, knitting, etc.; 3) cloth or a garment made from this yarn

n. degree of skill in doing a task or of finish in the product made

– n. room, area or small establishment where manual or light industrial work is done

– n. material or a fabric made by weaving. – adj. made by weaving

n. flower arrangement consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes

– n. band or bracelet worn around the wrist

one who writes, especially as an occupation





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